New Study Reveals that Mysterious Minoans Were not Egyptian

New Study Reveals that Mysterious Minoans Were not Egyptian

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

A new study published in the Journal of Nature Communications has revealed that the founders of the first advanced European civilization were European and not Egyptian as previously believed.

The Minoan culture is most famous for the myth of the minotaur, a half-man, half-bull that was said to have lived deep within a labyrinth. The Minoans lived on Crete, which is now part of Greece, and the Minoan culture reached its peak sometime between 2700 BC and 1420 BC.

While it may seem logical that the Minoans were European, a long-held theory maintained that the original inhabitants of Crete had arrived there from Egypt. Part of this belief came from the fact that the ancient palace of Knossos, which was discovered more than 100 years ago, had art and decoration that was very similar to Egyptian art.

The team of researchers made their discovery by comparing DNA from 4,000-year-old Minoan skeletons found in a cave in Crete’s Lassithi Plateau with genetic material from 135 modern and ancient people living throughout Europe and Africa in the past and today. It was found that the Minoan skeletons were genetically very similar to modern-day Europeans and genetically distinct from Egyptian or Libyan populations.

"They were very similar to Neolithic Europeans and very similar to present day-Cretans" said study co-author George Stamatoyannopoulos, a human geneticist at the University of Washington.

The findings suggest that the ancient Minoans were likely descended from a branch of agriculturalists in Anatolia (what is now modern-day Turkey and Iraq) that spread out into Europe about 9,000 years ago.

It is not entirely clear what happened to the Minoan population but it is suggested that a massive volcanic eruption on the island of Santorini doomed the Bronze Age civilization.

    Sanxingdui is an ancient Chinese civilization and settlement that flourished in the Sichuan Province of China. For thousands of years, this advanced culture was lost. It was only rediscovered in 1929 when a peasant found jade and stone artifacts while repairing a sewage ditch.

    The two prevailing theories about Sanxingdui&rsquos mysterious disappearance are war and flood. However, Niannian Fan from Tsinghua University in Chengdu, China, found these theories to be &ldquonot very convincing.&rdquo In 2014, he published research that details how an earthquake caused the Sanxingdui civilization to disappear.

    According to Fan&rsquos study, a massive earthquake almost 3,000 years ago &ldquocaused catastrophic landslides [that] rerouted the flow of [Sanxingdui&rsquos] river.&rdquo The inhabitants simply moved closer to the new river flow. This theory is supported by historical records of earthquakes that occurred near Sanxingdui. Fan believes that the inhabitants relocated to Jinsha after the river was rerouted.

    Surprisingly advanced

    "He was surprised to find this advanced civilisation on Crete," said co-author George Stamatoyannopoulos, from the University of Washington in Seattle, US.

    The evidence for this idea included apparent similarities between Egyptian and Minoan art and resemblances between circular tombs built by the early inhabitants of southern Crete and those built by ancient Libyans.

    But other archaeologists have argued for origins in Palestine, Syria, or Anatolia.

    In this study, Prof Stamatoyannopoulos and colleagues analysed the DNA of 37 individuals buried in a cave on the Lassithi plateau in the island's east. The majority of the burials are thought to date to the middle of the Minoan period - around 3,700 years ago.

    The analysis focused on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) extracted from the teeth of the skeletons, This type of DNA is stored in the cell's "batteries" and is passed down, more or less unchanged, from mother to child.

    They then compared the frequencies of distinct mtDNA lineages, known as "haplogroups", in this ancient Minoan set with similar data for 135 other populations, including ancient samples from Europe and Anatolia as well as modern peoples.

    The comparison seemed to rule out an origin for the Minoans in North Africa: the ancient Cretans showed little genetic similarity to Libyans, Egyptians or the Sudanese. They were also genetically distant from populations in the Arabian Peninsula, including Saudis, and Yemenis.

    Ancient DNA analysis reveals Minoan and Mycenaean origins

    The Minoans were a literate Bronze Age civilization that flourished thousands of years ago (one woman shown dancing, in a fresco fragment that dates from 1600-1450 BCE). Credit: Wikipedia/Photo by Wolfgang Sauber is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

    An analysis of ancient DNA has revealed that Ancient Minoans and Mycenaens were genetically similar with both peoples descending from early Neolithic farmers.

    They likely migrated from Anatolia to Greece and Crete thousands of years prior to the Bronze Age. Modern Greeks, in turn, are largely descendants of the Mycenaeans, the study found.

    The discovery of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations on the island of Crete and on mainland Greece in the late 1800s gave birth to modern archaeology and opened a direct window into the European Bronze Age. This period of history had previously been glimpsed only though Homer's epics, the Iliad and Odyssey.

    The Minoan civilization flourished on Crete beginning in the third millennium before the Common Era. and was astonishingly advanced artistically and technologically. The Minoans were also the first literate people of Europe. The Mycenaean civilization developed in mainland Greece in the second millennium before the Common Era. It shared many cultural features with the Minoans. They used the Linear B script, an early form of Greek.

    The origins of the Minoan and Mycenaean peoples, however, have puzzled archaeologists for over 100 years. It is widely believed that they derived from different ancestral populations. A new analysis of well-preserved Minoan and Mycenaean DNA now provides many answers and insights.

    An international team of researchers from the University of Washington, the Harvard Medical School and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, together with archaeologists and other collaborators in Greece and Turkey, report the first genome-wide DNA sequence data on the Bronze Age inhabitants of mainland Greece, Crete, and southwestern Anatolia.

    The Bull-Leaping-Fresco from the Great Palace at Knossos, Crete. (The original is located at Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Heraklion, Crete) Credit: By Lapplaender - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 de

    UW Medicine researcher, George Stamatoyannopoulos, professor of genome sciences and of medicine at the University of Washington School of Medicine, is the senior author on the paper describing the new findings.

    The study appears August 2 in the advanced online edition o the journal Nature.

    The researchers analyzed tooth DNA from the remains of 19 ancient individuals who could be definitively identified by archaeological evidence as Minoans of Crete, Mycenaeans of mainland Greece, and people who lived in southwestern Anatolia.

    The DNA samples were collected by Stamatoyannopoulos and his archaeologist collaborators, and were initially analyzed in his laboratory. Subsequently, Stamatoyannopoulos began collaborating with Johannes Krause of the Max Planck Institute, who undertook comprehensive genomic DNA sequencing using techniques developed in his laboratory, and P David Reich of Harvard Medical School, who worked with Iosif Lazaridis on collation and statistical genetic analysis of the data.

    They compared the Minoan and Mycenaean genomes to each other and to more than 330 other ancient genomes and over 2,600 genomes of present-day humans from around the world.

    The Mycenaeans, a Bronze Age civilization that conquered the Minoans, used a written language called Linear B (shown inscribed on tablet), that was an early form of Greek. Credit: Wikipedia/Photo by Zde is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

    Study results show that Minoans and Mycenaeans were genetically highly similar - but not identical - and that modern Greeks descend from these populations. The Minoans and Mycenaeans descended mainly from early Neolithic farmers, likely migrating thousands of years prior to the Bronze Age from Anatolia, in what is today modern Turkey.

    "Minoans, Mycenaeans, and modern Greeks also had some ancestry related to the ancient people of the Caucasus, Armenia, and Iran. This finding suggests that some migration occurred in the Aegean and southwestern Anatolia from further east after the time of the earliest farmers," said Lazaridis.

    While both Minoans and Mycenaeans had both "first farmer" and "eastern" genetic origins, Mycenaeans traced an additional minor component of their ancestry to ancient inhabitants of Eastern Europe and northern Eurasia. This type of so-called Ancient North Eurasian ancestry is one of the three ancestral populations of present-day Europeans, and is also found in modern Greeks.

    A passion for history inspired Stamatoyannopoulos to initiate this project: "For over 100 years, many hotly contested theories have circulated concerning the origin of the inhabitants of Bronze Age, Classical, and modern Greece, including the so-called 'Coming of the Greeks' in the late second millennium, the 'Black Athena' hypothesis of the Afroasiatic origins of Classical Greek civilization, and the notorious theory of the 19th century German historian Fallmerayer, who popularized the belief that the descendants of the ancient Greeks had vanished in early Medieval times."

    While the new study does not resolve all the outstanding questions, it provides key answers. Importantly, the findings disprove the widely held theory that the Mycenaeans were a foreign population in the Aegean and were not related to the Minoans. The results also dispel the theory that modern Greeks did not descend from the Mycenaeans and later ancient Greek populations.

    In broad strokes, the new study shows that there was genetic continuity in the Aegean from the time of the first farmers to present-day Greece, but not in isolation. The peoples of the Greek mainland had some admixture with Ancient North Eurasians and peoples of the Eastern European steppe both before and after the time of the Minoans and Mycenaeans, which may provide the missing link between Greek speakers and their linguistic relatives elsewhere in Europe and Asia.

    The study thus underscores the power of analysis of ancient DNA to solve vexing historical problems, and sets the stage for many future studies that promise to untangle the threads of history, archaeology, and language.

    Mysterious Minoans Were European, DNA Finds

    The Minoans, the builders of Europe's first advanced civilization, really were European, new research suggests.

    The conclusion, published today (May 14) in the journal Nature Communications, was drawn by comparing DNA from 4,000-year-old Minoan skeletons with genetic material from people living throughout Europe and Africa in the past and today.

    "We now know that the founders of the first advanced European civilization were European," said study co-author George Stamatoyannopoulos, a human geneticist at the University of Washington. "They were very similar to Neolithic Europeans and very similar to present day-Cretans," residents of the Mediterranean island of Crete.

    While that may sound intuitive, the findings challenge a long-held theory that the ancient Minoans came from Egypt.

    First European Civilization

    The Minoan culture emerged on Crete, which is now part of Greece, and flourished from about 2,700 B.C. to 1,420 B.C. Some believe that a massive eruption from the Volcano Thera on the island of Santorini doomed the Bronze Age civilization, while others argue that invading Mycenaeans toppled the once-great power.

    Nowadays, the Minoans may be most famous for the myth of the minotaur, a half-man, half-bull that was fabled to lived within a labyrinth in Crete. [10 Beasts & Dragons: How Reality Made Myth]

    When British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans discovered the Minoan palace of Knossos more than 100 years ago, he was dumbstruck by its beauty. He also noticed an eerie similarity between Minoan and Egyptian art, and didn't believe that the culture was homegrown.

    "That's why Evans postulated the civilization was imported from Egypt or Libya," Stamatoyannopoulos told LiveScience.

    Genetic clues

    To test that idea, the research team analyzed DNA from ancient Minoan skeletons that were sealed in a cave in Crete's Lassithi Plateau between 3,700 and 4,400 years ago. They then compared the skeletal mitochondrial DNA, which is stored in the energy powerhouses of cells and passed on through the maternal line, with that found in a sample of 135 modern and ancient populations from around Europe and Africa.

    The researchers found that the Minoan skeletons were genetically very similar to modern-day Europeans — and especially close to modern-day Cretans, particularly those from the Lassithi Plateau. They were also genetically similar to Neolithic Europeans, but distinct from Egyptian or Libyan populations.

    The findings argue against Evan's hypothesis and suggest that locals, not African expats, developed the Minoan culture.

    "It was a period of excitement around the Mediterranean," so although the Minoans definitely had contact with their African neighbors across the Mediterranean, any similarities in art were probably the result of cultural exchange, Stamatoyannopoulos said.

    Ancient language?

    The findings suggest that the ancient Minoans were likely descended from a branch of agriculturalists in Anatolia (what is now modern-day Turkey and Iraq) that fanned out into Europe about 9,000 years ago. If so, the Minoans may have spoken a proto-Indo-European language derived from the one possibly spoken by those Anatolian farmers, the researchers speculate.

    Knowing that the Minoan language has Indo-European roots could help archaeologists decipher a mysterious Minoan writing system, known as Linear A, Stamatoyannopoulos said.

    The prevailing theories hold that Minoan was a separate language family.

    The analysis of DNA from the Lassithi cave is a "valuable contribution," said Colin Renfrew, an archaeologist from the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research at the University of Cambridge, who was not involved in the study.

    However, to make a clearer connection to the Anatolian migration, the researchers should have compared the Minoan DNA with more DNA samples from modern and ancient Anatolia, he said.

    Copyright 2013 LiveScience, a TechMediaNetwork company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

    Mitochondrial DNA Study Reveals Origins of Minoan Civilization | Archaeology, Genetics

    I remember when people still claimed Minoan civilization was African in origin.

    Afrocentrists are so ridiculous.

    God yes. They were insisting the Greeks were a black Egyptian colony for years too. LMFAO at this.

    Modern Egyptians are native north Africans, for any Afrocentrist reading this. They have the same pattern of ancestry as Nubians and Libyans.

    turns out the 'Minoans shared the greatest percentage of their mtDNA variation with European populations'.

    Roots around Turkey (yay for Asia Minor) prior to 7000 years ago?

    I have a theory that choke-points [Istanbul] serve as evolutionary fitness markers.

    Is that all your theory or do you have more?

    Actually, this is a well-studied problem in Biology, and if anything a choke-point in a population's survival would decrease evolutionary fitness. By definition, a bottleneck in a population decreases the genetic diversity of a population by a large amount: this is known as the founder effect. This makes the population much more susceptible to genetic drift, and any mutations carried by the founders. Since negative (meaning hurting an individual's evolutionary fitness) mutations vastly vastly vastly outnumber positive ones, we can probably expect a population that passes through some sort of choke-point to be less fit, evolutionarily speaking.

    New Study Reveals Close Genetic Links Across Advanced Aegean Civilizations

    A landmark study of ancient DNA has shed new light on the genetic characteristics of people who built the great Bronze Age Aegean civilizations. A team of researchers from Greece and Switzerland performed a genetic analysis of DNA samples collected from the skeletal remains of 17 individuals found at different Aegean civilizations’ archaeological sites in the region.

    These men and women mostly lived during the Early Bronze Age, or approximately 5,000 years ago. They were members of three highly advanced Early Bronze Age Aegean civilizations: the Minoan civilization of Crete, the Cycladic civilization that occupied the Cyclades islands, and the Helladic civilization that formed on the Greek mainland.

    View to the so called “ Triangle Square” with the Westhouse (left) and the Delta West Complex (right). (© 7reasons, Michael Klein)

    It had previously been assumed that these three great civilizations consisted of separate cultures created by genetically distinct peoples. While they were located in the same general region, there are significant differences in art, architectural, and burial practices between them.

    But the results of this new research calls this assumption into question. The Swiss and Greek researchers were surprised to discover great genetic similarities between the various Early Bronze Age DNA samples. It seems these three great Aegean civilizations were not as isolated from one another as initially believed, but instead could trace their origins back to common ancestors.

    Myceneans in mainland Greece.

    The findings of this study were introduced in an article entitled “ The Genomic History of the Aegean Palatial Civilizations ,” which was published on April 29 in the peer-reviewed journal Cell.

    Aegean Civilizations Shared Common Ancestors and Culture

    The Minoan, Cycladic, and Helladic civilizations did share some notable characteristics. All built grand urban centers, constructed elaborate monuments, found ingenious uses for various metals, and created thriving trade networks that connected them with their neighbors.

    In the past, it was believed these overlaps were a consequence of mass immigrations from the east, specifically from Anatolia (modern-day Turkey). Migrants would have introduced some of these concepts and innovations to each civilization or culture they encountered, as they made their way westward centuries before the Bronze Age began. Eventually, migratory movements would have included intermixing between representatives of the Minoan, Cycladic, and Helladic civilizations, as trade networks developed that connected these various powers more closely. This would have further accelerated the adoption of certain cultural practices by all three civilizations in roughly the same time period.

    Anatolian toponyms of the Hittite rule.

    But the latest genetic analysis suggests an alternative explanation. If the Aegean civilizations were more closely related than previously thought, it means they would have shared a common culture reaching far back into antiquity. They became more diverse as time passed, which would explain the differences between their preferred forms of art and architecture. But their divergence wouldn’t have been complete, meaning the characteristics they had in common (like their city building and metal working practices) would have emerged from their shared cultural heritage.

    It is important to emphasize that migration would have still been a factor that helped shape cultural development in the region. However, it would not have been the sole factor at work. The peoples of the Early Bronze Age Minoan , Cycladic, and Helladic civilizations would have inherited many of their social, economic, and political attributes from their common ancestors, creating a continuous cultural unity.

    The skeleton of one of the two individuals who lived in the middle of the Bronze Age and whose complete genome was reconstructed and sequenced by the Lausanne research team. The remains are from the archaeological site of Elati-Logkas, which belongs to the Aegean civilizations’ region. (Ephorate of Antiquities of Kozani / Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports)

    Genetic Divergence in the Middle Bronze Age

    While most of the DNA samples studied by the Swiss and Greek researchers came from Early Bronze Age sites, two were retrieved from sites that dated to the Middle Bronze Age. Analysis of these two samples produced somewhat different results from the analysis of the earlier genetic material.

    By the Middle Bronze Age (approximately 4,600 to 4,000 years ago), it seems a significant amount of contact had occurred between the people of the northern Aegean (mainland Greece) and herders who had migrated from the Pontic-Caspian steppe . The Middle Bronze Age DNA samples contained equal parts Helladic and Pontic-Caspian genetic material, which made them genetically distinct from their Early Bronze Age ancestors.

    The Pontic-Caspian steppe was an expansive region of flat grassland to the north and east of the Aegean Sea. It covers sections of modern Russia and the former states of the Soviet Union, and is bordered by the Danube River and Ural River. The nomadic people that resided there in ancient times were known to be geographically mobile, and as they traveled and settled in new areas they influenced the development of many European cultures.

    Their legacy may include the spoken and written languages shared by modern-day occupants of Europe, North America, and South America. It is believed that the earliest form of the modern Greek language, along with all the other Indo-European languages , may well have originated in the Pontic-Caspian steppe region.

    Tracing the Lines of History from Present to Past

    The scientists behind this fascinating study have broken new ground in prehistorical research.

    “Ancient samples allowed us to reconstruct ancestral relationships between ancient populations, and reliably infer the amount and timing of massive migration events that marked the cultural transition from Neolithic to Bronze Age in the Aegean,” explained study co-author Olga Dolgova, who is affiliated with the Barcelona-based Centre for Genomic Regulation.

    The Bronze Age Aegean civilizations created the first large urban centers and built the first monumental palaces. Their social, cultural, political, and economic innovations still resonate with us today, as they were the forerunners of ancient Greek, Roman, and modern western civilizations. In a very real sense, their history is our history, and learning more about them can simultaneously help us learn more about ourselves.

    The Greeks really do have near-mythical origins, ancient DNA reveals

    Ever since the days of Homer, Greeks have long idealized their Mycenaean “ancestors” in epic poems and classic tragedies that glorify the exploits of Odysseus, King Agamemnon, and other heroes who went in and out of favor with the Greek gods. Although these Mycenaeans were fictitious, scholars have debated whether today’s Greeks descend from the actual Mycenaeans, who created a famous civilization that dominated mainland Greece and the Aegean Sea from about 1600 B.C.E. to 1200 B.C.E., or whether the ancient Mycenaeans simply vanished from the region.

    Now, ancient DNA suggests that living Greeks are indeed the descendants of Mycenaeans, with only a small proportion of DNA from later migrations to Greece. And the Mycenaeans themselves were closely related to the earlier Minoans, the study reveals, another great civilization that flourished on the island of Crete from 2600 B.C.E. to 1400 B.C.E. (named for the mythical King Minos).

    The Lion Gate was the main entrance to the Bronze Age citadel of Mycenae, the center of the Mycenaean civilization.

    The ancient DNA comes from the teeth of 19 people, including 10 Minoans from Crete dating to 2900 B.C.E. to 1700 BCE, four Mycenaeans from the archaeological site at Mycenae and other cemeteries on the Greek mainland dating from 1700 B.C.E. to 1200 B.C.E., and five people from other early farming or Bronze Age (5400 B.C.E. to 1340 B.C.E.) cultures in Greece and Turkey. By comparing 1.2 million letters of genetic code across these genomes to those of 334 other ancient people from around the world and 30 modern Greeks, the researchers were able to plot how the individuals were related to each other.

    The ancient Mycenaeans and Minoans were most closely related to each other, and they both got three-quarters of their DNA from early farmers who lived in Greece and southwestern Anatolia, which is now part of Turkey, the team reports today in Nature . Both cultures additionally inherited DNA from people from the eastern Caucasus, near modern-day Iran, suggesting an early migration of people from the east after the early farmers settled there but before Mycenaeans split from Minoans.

    The Mycenaeans did have an important difference: They had some DNA—4% to 16%—from northern ancestors who came from Eastern Europe or Siberia. This suggests that a second wave of people from the Eurasian steppe came to mainland Greece by way of Eastern Europe or Armenia, but didn’t reach Crete, says Iosif Lazaridis, a population geneticist at Harvard University who co-led the study.

    This dancing Minoan woman from a fresco at Knossos, Crete (1600–1450 B.C.E.), resembles the Mycenaean women (above).

    Not surprisingly, the Minoans and Mycenaeans looked alike, both carrying genes for brown hair and brown eyes. Artists in both cultures painted dark-haired, dark-eyed people on frescoes and pottery who resemble each other, although the two cultures spoke and wrote different languages. The Mycenaeans were more militaristic, with art replete with spears and images of war, whereas Minoan art showed few signs of warfare, Lazaridis says. Because the Minoans script used hieroglyphics, some archaeologists thought they were partly Egyptian, which turns out to be false.

    When the researchers compared the DNA of modern Greeks to that of ancient Mycenaeans, they found a lot of genetic overlap. Modern Greeks share similar proportions of DNA from the same ancestral sources as Mycenaeans, although they have inherited a little less DNA from ancient Anatolian farmers and a bit more DNA from later migrations to Greece.

    The continuity between the Mycenaeans and living people is “particularly striking given that the Aegean has been a crossroads of civilizations for thousands of years,” says co-author George Stamatoyannopoulos of the University of Washington in Seattle. This suggests that the major components of the Greeks’ ancestry were already in place in the Bronze Age, after the migration of the earliest farmers from Anatolia set the template for the genetic makeup of Greeks and, in fact, most Europeans. “The spread of farming populations was the decisive moment when the major elements of the Greek population were already provided,” says archaeologist Colin Renfrew of the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, who was not involved in the work.

    Black People : Mysterious Minoans Were European, DNA Finds

    The Minoans, the builders of Europe's first advanced civilization, really were European, new research suggests.
    The conclusion, published today (May 14) in the journal Nature Communications, was drawn by comparing DNA from 4,000-year-old Minoan skeletons with genetic material from people living throughout Europe and Africa in the past and today.
    "We now know that the founders of the first advanced European civilization were European," said study co-author George Stamatoyannopoulos, a human geneticist at the University of Washington. "They were very similar to Neolithic Europeans and very similar to present day-Cretans," residents of the Mediterranean island of Crete.
    While that may sound intuitive, the findings challenge a long-held theory that the ancient Minoans came from Egypt.
    First European Civilization
    The Minoan culture emerged on Crete, which is now part of Gree

    White people are so ignorant that it is mind blowing sometimes. Anyone who looks at the photos of the Minoans in "Civilization or Barbarism" by Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop can see that they were white!

    3 Death Of A King

    In 2013, a journalist won a grim lot at auction&mdashseveral old leaves stained with blood. Many gory relics are linked to the famous. In this case, it was King Albert I, an enthusiastic mountaineer.

    In 1934, the Belgian monarch fancied a mountain near a village called Marche-les-Dames. The 58-year-old set off alone, and his body was eventually discovered at the bottom of a cliff. The king was popular, and souvenir hunters descended on the place where he died. The area was stripped bare.

    In 2016, the journalist who purchased the leaves had them tested. DNA was provided by two living family members of Albert I&mdashthe German baroness Anna Maria Freifrau von Haxthausen and another king, Simeon II of Bulgaria. It was a match. [8]

    The authenticity of the blood was established, but the cause of death will likely never be known. Rumors of assassination wrestle with claims of an accident or suicide. However, the presence of blood disproved one conspiracy theory&mdashthat the king was murdered elsewhere and later moved by his killers to where he was found.

    Africans Don't Need to Revise History &ndash They Have A Wonderfully Rich Cultural History Already

    Africans today should learn their true history and not start adopting false history in an effort to claim other people's culture and history. There are many great tribes such as the Zulus in South Africa and the Masai in Kenya who have a rich culture and interesting history from which Africans can learn.

    The word Negro means black in Spanish. The word Africa came from Tunisia which was a Roman controlled area on the Mediterranean Coast and eventually the name Africa was given to the entire continent.

    Not all people who live in Africa are Negroes, for example, the Tunisians and Algerians are mainly Caucasian people and 99% of the population is classified ethnically as Arab-Berber so they are called Caucasian Africans. They have been living in these areas all along North of the Sahara desert for many thousands of years.

    Watch the video: Η ΣΤΑΥΡΟΦΟΡΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΜΥΣΤΙΚΟΤΗΤΑΣ (June 2022).


    1. Zolobar

      Approaching the second obzatz it will be necessary to overcome the desire to skip it

    2. Nanris

      Until when?

    3. Umi

      Thanks for the valuable information. It was very useful to me.

    Write a message