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Ida Hustard, the daughter of John Arthur Husted and Cassandra Stoddard, was born in Franklin County on 18th February, 1851. Ida worked as a schoolteacher and was a principal of a high school in Peru, Indiana, when she married Thomas Winans Harper of Terre Haute on 28th December, 1871. He was a lawyer but the marriage was not happy and they eventually got divorced.
She began writing poems and articles on politics and women's suffrage. Some of these were published in a trade union newspaper edited by Eugene Debs. In 1884 she published Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects. In 1887 Ida Harper helped organize a women's suffrage society in Indiana. The following year Harper found work as a journalist on the Terre Haute Evening Mail and later moved to The Indianapolis News (1891-92).
In 1896 she joined the National American Woman Suffrage Association where she worked closely with Susan B. Anthony. She also wrote a regular column, Votes for Women, in Harper's Magazine. Harper was also active in the International Council of Women. Harper also wrote the three volume, The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony (1898-1908) and The History of Woman Suffrage (1902).
Ida Harper died on 14th March, 1931.
The moment we accept the theory that women must enter wage-earning occupations only when compelled to do so by poverty, the moment we degrade labour and lower the status of all women who are engaged in it. This theory prevailed throughout past ages, and it placed a stigma upon working women which is only beginning to be removed by the present generation. The fact that only a few insignificant employments with the most meager wages were permitted added still further to the disgrace of her position.
The charge is continually made that the entrance of women into the industrial world has lowered men's wages to a ruinous degree. As a matter of fact, there are very few departments of work where men are not receiving higher wages now then ever before. If, however, these were placed at the same figure as before women entered into competition, and the 4 million women now engaged in breadwinning employments were withdrawn and set down in the home, the results would be disastrous. It would mean a life of idleness and privation for women, of added labour and sacrifice for men, a situation equally undesirable for both.
Pennsylvania and the 19th Amendment
State of Pennsylvania depicted in purple, white, and gold (colors of the National Woman’s Party suffrage flag) – indicating Pennsylvania was one of the original 36 states to ratify the 19th Amendment.
Women first organized and collectively fought for suffrage at the national level in July of 1848. Suffragists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott convened a meeting of over 300 people in Seneca Falls, New York. In the following decades, women marched, protested, lobbied, and even went to jail. By the 1870s, women pressured Congress to vote on an amendment that would recognize their suffrage rights. This amendment was sometimes known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment and became the 19th Amendment.
"The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex."
Pennsylvania was a center of women's rights activism even before the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. Women involved in the robust abolitionist movement in the state found themselves criticized by male reformers for speaking in public and participating in other activities considered unwomanly. Lucretia Mott and an interracial group of Pennsylvania women organized the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society in 1833. The Society sent Lucretia Mott as a delegate to the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840 to challenge the organizers' exclusion of women delegates. Pennsylvanians Angelina and Sarah Grimke were among the first to write and speak on the cause of women's equality as early as 1838. The sisters moved to Pennsylvania after leaving their home state of South Carolina because of their opposition to slavery.
After the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention, Pennsylvanians continued their involvement in the movement for women's rights, including the right to vote. The Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society held one of the early women's rights conventions in 1854. A number of woman suffrage groups organized in the state and focused their attention on raising awareness of the suffrage cause. Carrie Burnham attempted to vote in 1871. After she was denied, she took her case to the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, arguing that voting was a right of citizenship. She lost the case, and the Pennsylvania constitution was subsequently amended to limit voting rights to "male citizens."
After the Pennsylvania legislature passed a suffrage referendum in 1915, the Pennsylvania Woman Suffrage Association organized a campaign to canvass for passage of the referendum that took them to every county in the state.
Girl standing with Justice Bell, 1915. Historical Society of Pennsylvania
Amending the state constitution again to include woman suffrage required the passage of a resolution through two sessions of the legislature and then ratification by the state's voters in the next election, a multi-year process. Beginning in 1911, woman suffrage groups lobbied for such an amendment vigorously. The amendment passed the legislature in 1913 and went to the voters for ratification in 1915. Katharine Wentworth Ruschenberger, in collaboration with the Pennsylvania Woman Suffrage Association, funded the creation of a replica of the Liberty Bell in support of this effort. Christened the Justice Bell, its clapper was secured with chains so that it could not ring until women won the vote. The Justice Bell toured the state in 1915 to win support of ratification of the state amendment. It was expected that it would ring out in victory in Philadelphia once the election results came in. But the Justice Bell stayed silent the referendum went down in defeat.
In 1913, the Woman Suffrage Procession in Washington, D.C. reinvigorated the push for a national amendment enfranchising women. Many Pennsylvania women joined the efforts to lobby for this amendment. A number participated in the more confrontational tactics of the National Woman's Party, including picketing the White House and going on hunger strikes.
After decades of effort on the local and national level by woman suffragists, Congress finally passed the federal woman suffrage amendment in June 1919. After Congress approved it, at least 36 states needed to vote in favor of the amendment for it to become part of the U.S. Constitution. This process is called ratification.
On June 24, 1919, the Pennsylvania legislature voted to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment. By August of 1920, 36 states (including Pennsylvania) approved the Amendment, making women’s suffrage legal all across the country.
State flag of Pennsylvania. CC0
Pennsylvania Places of Women's Suffrage: Rittenhouse Square
Rittenhouse Square, a public park in Philadelphia, was the site of one of the state’s first suffrage marches. Inspired by Alice Paul’s newly formed organization, the Congressional Union (CU), suffragists in Philadelphia protested in Rittenhouse Square in 1914. They then marched down Market Street to Washington Square where they concluded the demonstration. Rittenhouse Square is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. An earlier Pennsylvania suffrage march took place during the Perry Centennial celebration on July 8, 1913 in Erie, Pennsylvania. A plaster replica of the Justice Bell was featured in the march. 
Discover More Places of Ratification
Rittenhouse Square is an important place in the story of ratification. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Sources used to make these state pages include: Tamara Gaskill, " Woman Suffrage ," in The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia Ida Husted Harper's History of Woman Suffrage: 1900-1920 , Volume 6 (1922), the National American Woman Suffrage Association papers (Library of Congress), Jennie Bradley Roessing, "The Equal Suffrage Campaign in Pennsylvania," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 56, Women in Public Life (Nov., 1914), pp. 153-160 Published by: Sage Publications, Inc. in association with the American Academy of Political and Social Science and National Register nominations from the National Park Service.
 Grabski, Sarah and Valerie Myers. 2019. "Erie Women Fight to Vote: A Look at Suffrage Movement." Erie Times-News , March 9, 2019 Erie Daily Times. 1913. "Mothers, Children and Suffragists in Great Perry Week Parade." Erie Daily Times, July 10, 1913.
On Her Own
In February 1890, she divorced her husband, then became editor in chief of the Terre Haute Daily News. She left just three months later, after leading the paper successfully through an election campaign. She moved to Indianapolis to be with her daughter Winnifred, who was a student in that city at the Girls’ Classical School. She continued contributing to the BLF magazine and also began writing for the Indianapolis News.
When Winnifred Harper moved to California in 1893 to begin studies at Stanford University, Ida Husted Harper accompanied her, and also enrolled in classes at Stanford.
Writing Toward the Vote: Ida Husted Harper
Ida Husted Harper--Susan B. Anthony's friend and biographer--was one of the lucky few early suffragists to live to see the Nineteenth Amendment pass in 1919.
Early in the 1870s a young woman secretly began sending articles under a male pseudonym to the Terre Haute Saturday Evening Mail. Not until September, 1882, did the name Ida Husted Harper appear with these writings.
Harper’s column, “A Woman’s Opinions,” discussed women’s rights and the proper role of women. Like many women of her time, Harper believed women should be allowed to pursue work outside the home—but only if it was necessary for the family’s survival. Otherwise, she should marry and have a family. Harper’s personal life did not always align with her public views, however. Her marriage to a prominent and successful lawyer ended in divorce just before her thirty-ninth birthday in 1890.
After the divorce, her life changed dramatically. Harper became a leader in the fight for women’s suffrage. Eugene V. Debs, another native of Terre Haute, had introduced her to Susan B. Anthony in 1878, and the two women became close friends. Harper would go on to write a three-volume biography of Anthony. She frequently praised her in her columns, even comparing her to Lincoln:
Miss Anthony’s face has something in it which reminds one of Abraham Lincoln’s, the same strong, rugged features, softened by lines of weariness and care and spiritualized by an expression of infinite sadness.
As their friendship grew, so did Harper’s activism on behalf of the long, constant struggle for women’s suffrage. She traveled extensively and focused her writing on women’s rights. In 1897, she moved into Susan B. Anthony’s home in Rochester, New York, in order to write the biography. Harper frequently accompanied Anthony on her lecture tours and to suffrage conventions in both the United States and Europe, and began both writing and editing women’s columns for major newspapers nationwide.
Harper was one of the lucky few early suffragists to live to see the Nineteenth Amendment pass in 1919 Anthony, on the other hand, had died at the age of eighty-six in 1906. Although her hopes for great moral changes from women’s suffrage were not realized, Harper was a remarkable Hoosier who served on the front lines in one of the nation’s most historic, and important, battles.
A Moment of Indiana History is a production of WFIU Public Radio in partnership with the Indiana Public Broadcasting Stations. Research support comes from Indiana Magazine of History published by the Indiana University Department of History.
Source Article: Nancy Baker Jones, “A Forgotten Feminist: The Early Writings of Ida Husted Harper, 1878-1894,” Indiana Magazine of History 73, no. 2 (June 1977): 79-101.
Ida Husted Harper (February 18, 1851 – March 14, 1931) was a prominent figure in the United States women's suffrage movement. She was an American author and journalist who wrote primarily to document the movement and show support of its ideals.
Ida was born in Fairfield, Franklin County, Indiana to John Arthur Husted and Cassandra Stoddard. By 1870, she was a school teacher in Peru, Indiana. Later, she became a principal of a high school in Peru, Indiana and on December 28, 1871, she married Thomas Winans Harper of Terre Haute, Indiana, who went on to become a successful attorney and politician and whom she would later divorce.
She began writing woman's columns, first in a Terre Haute newspaper under the pseudonym "John Smith" and later in a union magazine edited by activist Eugene V. Debs of Terre Haute. Through this period, she increasingly became more interested in the campaign for women's suffrage.
In 1887, she helped to organize a woman suffrage society in Indiana, serving as its secretary and in 1896 joined the National American Woman Suffrage Association where she worked as a reporter and, ultimately, an historian of the movement. She brought Susan B. Anthony to Terre Haute for a suffrage convention and became close to her during this period, soon collaborating with her on writing the "History of Woman Suffrage."
She later wrote an authorized and substantial biography of Anthony based on her their relationship and Anthony's own archives. The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony was published in 3 volumes between 1898 and 1908. Seeking to cement her place in history as Anthony's sole biographer, she spent weeks burning priceless letters and historic documents after Harper set her main biographical text in place.
Ida Harper fulfilled a similar role in press relations for the International Council of Women and later headed the Leslie Bureau of Suffrage Education, which strove to improve public understanding of the movement. The bureau produced articles and pamphlets about the campaign and also communicated directly with editors, praising, chastising, or correcting them regarding their editorial perspectives and policies on women.
In 1920, her efforts contributed to the success of the movement as women were guaranteed the right to vote by the Nineteenth Amendment. In 1922, she updated the History of Woman Suffrage, adding fifth and sixth volumes. She died in Washington, D. C. in 1931.
HARPER, Ida Husted
Born 18 February 1851, Fairfield, Indiana died 14 March 1931, Washington, D.C.
Daughter of John A. and Cassandra Stoddard Husted married Thomas W. Harper, 1871 (divorced 1890) children: one daughter
Ida Husted Harper was a prolific writer and journalist and an active feminist. A suffragist of international reputation, Harper traveled throughout the U.S. and Europe with Susan B. Anthony, who asked her to become her official biographer. She handled publicity for the National American Woman Suffrage Association when Carrie Chapman Catt served as president.
After leaving Indiana University to become principal of a high school in Indiana, Harper began her writing career at twenty by sending articles under a male pseudonym to the Terre HauteSaturday Evening Mail. Under her own name she then wrote a column, "A Woman's Opinions," for that same newspaper for 12 years. She simultaneously edited weekly discussions of women's activities in the Locomotive Fireman's Magazine, the official organ of the union of which her husband was chief counsel. After her divorce in 1890, she joined the staff of the Indianapolis News. From then on she devoted her life to her daughter, to writing, and to her activities in the woman suffrage movement.
Her career in journalism led her from Indiana to New York, where she wrote a column for the New York Sun (1899-1903) and, best known, a woman's page in Harper's Bazaar (1909-1913). She devoted most of this writing to the suffrage movement her interests, unlike those of Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Lucy Stone, centered on the primary importance of the vote for women. She offered detailed reports about the status of women and their right to vote in countries all over the world. Her insight into international politics gave to her work the standards of accurate social history. In Harper's Bazaar, she reported on working women demanding suffrage, on women as officeholders in states with the vote, on the deaths of her friends who had "lived for the Movement," and on the joys of seeing her dreams become a reality: "Yes, woman suffrage is becoming fashionable and it is all very amusing to veterans of the cause. They understand fully that, underlying the fashion, are years of hard and persistent work yet ahead before a universal victory."
Her spirit is striking as she writes that "women of today who are not helping in the effort for the franchise do not know the joy they miss…so vital, so compelling, so full of the progressive spirit of the age." This same vigor appears in her two volumes of the History of Woman Suffrage, that monumental compilation begun by Anthony and Stanton. Harper helped Anthony edit volume four, and she alone edited volumes five and six, dealing with state and national activities from 1900 to 1920. While the History contains records rather than interpretations of documents, speeches, and state and national activities, it nevertheless forms a coherent pattern of immense value for historians.
Harper was Susan B. Anthony's Boswell: to her we owe a detailed study of Anthony's life and activities in two long volumes published in 1898. During later life she continued her work on the Anthony biography volume three was published in 1908. The searcher for psychological insight will be disappointed by The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony. Its deepest penetration in explaining Anthony's personality and motivation is through its astute description of Anthony's Quaker family background and of the encouragement in her education given by both parents.
Otherwise, the biography remains largely a chronicle, dull at times and burdened with detail. Stylistically, it belongs to the tradition of sentimental 19th-century prose. Yet no historian concerned with Anthony's role in the 19th-century women's movement can ignore the intimate details of social history in Harper's story: Anthony's role as teacher, her support of both temperance and Amelia Bloomer, her acceptance of hydropathic medicine, and her relationships and correspondence with leaders of social reform, such as Garrison, Stanton, Stone, and Antoinette Brown.
Though close to her daughter, who continued her mother's work in the women's movement, Harper remained independent, spending her last years working in the headquarters of the American Association of University Women in Washington, D.C. Using her journalistic talent to good effect, Harper served the suffrage movement well. The extent and variety of her writing is impressive 14 large indexed volumes of her writings stand in the Library of Congress.
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Ida Husted Harper collection of letters and autographs
Creator: Harper, Ida Husted, 1851-1931
Call Number: D.550
Dates: 1854-1906, undated
Physical Description: .5 Linear Feet
Language(s): Materials are in English
Repository: Rare Books, Special Collections, and Preservation, River Campus Libraries, University of Rochester
Scope and Content
Immediate Source of Acquisition
Box 1 Letters and autographs
Title: Ida Husted Harper collection of letters and autographs
Creator: Harper, Ida Husted, 1851-1931
Call Number: D.550
Dates: 1854-1906, undated
Physical Description: .5 Linear Feet
Language(s): Materials are in English
Repository: Rare Books, Special Collections, and Preservation, River Campus Libraries, University of Rochester
Ida Husted Harper (1851 - 1931) was an American author, journalist, columnist, and women's rights activist. In 1897 she moved into Susan B. Anthony's home in Rochester to work on a three-volume biography of Anthony. She also co-edited (with Anthony) volume four of the six-volume History of Woman Suffrage and completed volumes five and six after Anthony's death. She served as secretary of the Indiana chapter of the National Woman Suffrage Association, headed the National American Woman Suffrage Association's national press bureau in New York City, and wrote and lectured across the entire country.
Scope and Content
This two-volume extra-illustrated version of The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony contains 38 tipped-in letters and autographs inserted into the book by its author, Ida Husted Harper. She placed them into the book at the appropriate point in the narrative. The material covers the bulk of Anthony's working life. 19 of the letters are addressed to Anthony, and another 3 to Elizabeth Cady Stanton. The letters were evidently in the possession of Harper, who had access to Anthony's correspondence while writing the biography.
The book is inscribed "Mr. and Mrs. Frank P. Sargent, with the highest regards of the author, Ida Husted Harper, May 23, 1906." Frank Sargent was the head of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen and was appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt as Commissioner General of Immigration. He was an advocate of women's suffrage. Harper's husband, Thomas Harper, was the chief legal counsel for the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen and may have known Sargent through that organization.
The records have been arranged in one series, Letters and Autographs. The series is arranged in the order the letters and autographs have been placed in the book.
Unitarian and Universalist Women
Many Unitarian and Universalist women were among the activists who worked for women's rights others were leaders in the arts, humanities, politics and other fields. The list below is fairly extensive and includes women from before the Unitarian and Universalist movements merged as well as afterwards, and also includes some women from neighboring movements including Ethical Culture.
Listed in order of their birth years. American unless otherwise indicated.
Anne Bradstreet 1612-1672 Nonconformist
- poet, writer descendents include Unitarians William Ellery Channing, Wendell Phillips, Oliver Wendell Holmes
Anna Laetitia Aiken Barbauld 1743-1825 Unitarian (British)
Judith Sargent Murray 1751-1820 Universalist
Mary Wollstonecraft 1759-1797 Unitarian married Unitarian minister
Mary Moody Emerson 1774-1863 Unitarian
Maria Cook 1779-1835 Universalist
Lucy Barnes 1780-1809 Universalist
Eliza Lee Cabot Follen 1787-1860 Unitarian
- children's author, abolitionist she, with husband Charles Follen, Harvard German instructor, introduced the Christmas tree custom to America
Eliza Farrar 1791-1870 Quaker, Unitarian
Lucretia Mott 1793-1880 Quaker, Free Religious Association
- reformer: abolition, feminism, peace, temperance, liberal religion cousin of Phebe Hanaford (also on this list)
Frederika Bremer 1801-1865 Unitarian (Swedish)
Lydia Maria Child 1802-1880 Unitarian
- author, abolitionist, reformer wrote An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans and "Over the River and Through the Woods"
Dorothea Dix 1802-1887 Unitarian
Elizabeth Palmer Peabody 1804-1894 Unitarian, Transcendentalist
- (teacher, author, reformer sister to Mary Peabody Mann and Sophia Peabody Hawthorne (both also on this list) close associate of William Ellery Channing
Sarah Flower Adams 1805-1848 Unitarian (British)
Mary Tyler Peabody Mann 1806-1887 Unitarian
- educator sister to Elizabeth Palmer Peabody and Sophia Peabody Hawthorne (both on this list), married to Horace Mann
Maria Weston Chapman 1806-1885 Unitarian
Mary Carpenter 1807-1877 Unitarian (British)
Sophia Peabody Hawthorne 1809-1871 Unitarian
- author and writer sister to Elizabeth Parker Peabody and Mary Peabody Mann (both also on this list), married to Nathaniel Hawthorne
Fanny Kemble 1809-1893 Unitarian (British)
- poet, Shakespearean actress author of Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838-39
Margaret Fuller 1810-1850 Unitarian, Transcendentalist
Elizabeth Gaskell 1810-1865 Unitarian
Ellen Sturgis Hooper 1812-1848 Transcendentalist Unitarian
Elizabeth Cady Stanton 1815-1902 Unitarian
Lydia Moss Bradley 1816-1908 Unitarian and Universalist
Charlotte Saunders Cushman 1816-1876 Unitarian
Lucy N. Colman 1817-1906 Universalist
Lucy Stone 1818-1893 Unitarian
- feminist, suffragist, abolitionist married Henry Brown Blackwell whose sisters were Elizabeth Blackwell and Emily Blackwell (both on this list) and whose brother Samuel Blackwell married Antoinette Brown Blackwell (also on this list) mother of Alice Stone Blackwell (also on this list)
Sallie Holley 1818-1893 Unitarian
Maria Mitchell 1818-1889 Unitarian
Caroline Sturgis Tappan 1819-1868 Transcendentalist Unitarian
Julia Ward Howe 1819-1910 Unitarian, Free Religious Association
- writer, poet, abolitionist, social reformer author of Battle Hymn of the Republic promoter of Mother's Day for Peace mother of Laura E. Richards and married to Samuel Gridley Howe, founder of the Perkins School for the Blind, researcher
Florence Nightingale 1820-1910 British Unitarian
Mary Ashton Rice Livermore 1820-1905
Susan Brownell Anthony 1820-1906 Unitarian and Quaker
Alice Cary1820-1871 Universalist
Clara Barton 1821-1912 Universalist
Elizabeth Blackwell 1821-1910 Unitarian and Episcopalian
- physician, sister of Emily Blackwell, sister of Samuel Blackwell who was married to Antoinette Brown Blackwell, and of Henry Blackwell, married to Lucy Stone (Emily Blackwell, Antoinette Brown Blackwell, and Lucy Stone are on this list)
Caroline Wells Healey Dall 1822-1912 Unitarian
Frances Power Cobbe 1822-1904 Unitarian (British)
Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz 1822-1907 Unitarian
Sarah Hammond Palfrey 1823-1914
Phoebe Cary 1824-1871 Universalist
Ednah Dow Littlehale Cheney 1824-1904 Universalist, Unitarian, Free Religious Association
Antoinette Brown Blackwell 1825-1921 Congregational and Unitarian minister
- minister, author, lecturer: possibly the first woman ordained as a Protestant minister in the US by a "recognized denomination" later married Samuel Blackwell, brother of Elizabeth and Emily Blackwell and of Henry Blackwell who was married to Lucy Stone (Elizabeth and Emily Blackwell and Lucy Stone are on this list)
- physician, sister of Elizabeth Blackwell, of Samuel Blackwell who was married to Antoinette Brown Blackwell, and of Henry Blackwell who was married to Lucy Stone (Lucy Stone, Elizabeth Blackwell, and Antoinette brown Blackwell are on this list)
Matilda Joslyn Gage 1826-1898 Unitarian
- suffragist, reformer her daughter Maud married L. Frank Baum, author of The Wizard of Oz. Gage retained her membership in the Baptist church later became a Theosophist. [picture]
Maria Cummins 1827-1866 Unitarian
Barbara Bodichon 1827-1891 Unitarian (British)
Phebe Ann Coffin Hanaford 1829-1921 Universalist
Abigail May Williams 1829-1888
Emily Dickinson 1830-1886 Transcendentalist
Helen Hunt Jackson 1830-1885 Transcendentalist
Louisa May Alcott 1832-1888 Transcendentalist
Jane Andrews 1833-1887 Unitarian
Rebecca Sophia Clarke 1833 -1906 Unitarian
Annie Adams Field 1834-1915 Unitarian
- author, literary hostess, charity worker married to James Fields, editor of the Atlantic after his death lived with Sarah Orne Jewitt, author
Olympia Brown 1835-1926 Universalist
Augusta Jane Chapin 1836-1905 Universalist
- minister, activist one of the chief organizers of the Parliament of the World's Religions, 1893, especially of participation of many women of a variety of faiths in this event
Ada C. Bowles 1836-1928 Universalist
Fanny Baker Ames 1840-1931 Unitarian
Charlotte Champe Stearns Eliot 1843-1929 Unitarian
- author, reformer father-in-law was William Greenleaf Eliot, Unitarian minister and founder of Washington University, St. Louis son was T.S. Eliot, poet
Eliza Tupper Wilkes 1844-1917
Emma Eliza Bailey 1844-1920 Universalist
Celia Parker Woolley 1848-1919 Unitarian, Free Religious Association
Ida Husted Harper 1851-1931 Unitarian
Anna Garlin Spencer 1851-1931 Free Religious Association
- minister, writer, educator, NAACP founder, social reformer also wife of Unitarian minister William B. Spencer though Spencer was associated with Unitarian, Universalist, and Ethical Culture congregations, she identified with the broader "free religion"
Mary Augusta Safford 1851-1927 Unitarian
Eleanor Elizabeth Gordon 1852-1942 Unitarian
Maud Howe Elliott 1854-1948 Unitarian
Maria Baldwin 1856-1922 Unitarian
Harriot Stanton Blatch 1856-1940 Unitarian
Alice Stone Blackwell 1857-1950 Unitarian
Fannie Farmer 1857-1915 Unitarian (and Universalist?)
- cookbook author, teacher of cooking and dietetics first to write recipes wit exact measurements
Ida C. Hultin 1858-1938 Unitarian and Universalist
Caroline Julia Bartlett Crane 1858-1935 Unitarian
Carrie Clinton Chapman Catt 1859-1947 Unitarian connections
Ellen Gates Starr 1859-1940 Unitarian roots, converted to Roman Catholicism
Additional women's movement units
National Woman's Party: a year-by-year History 1913-1922
This illustrated essay chronicles the actions and accomplishments of this remarkable social movement while displaying more than 50 photographs from the "Women of Protest: Photographs from the Records of the National Woman's Party" (Library of Congress).
Mapping National Woman's Party offices and actions (Washington DC)
From the beginning, the NWP focused tightly on Washington DC. It's first headquarters was some distance from the Capitol, but as soon as finances permitted, NWP moved closer, a mere block from the White House. These maps and timeline show the locations of picket lines, arrests, and meetings in the nation's capital.
Mapping NWP actions nationwide 1914-1922
Here are maps and charts showing the year-by year geography of the the movement. The NWP organized campaigns in many states while concentrating protest activities in Washington DC. Filter by state and by the type of events.