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Sledge, E B. With the Old Breed: At Peleliu and Okinawa, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD, 1996 (Reprint).
Battle of Peleliu
The Battle of Peleliu, codenamed Operation Stalemate II by the United States military, was fought between the U.S. and Japan during the Mariana and Palau Campaign of World War II, from September 15 to November 27, 1944, on the island of Peleliu.
U.S. Marines of the 1st Marine Division, and later soldiers of the U.S. Army's 81st Infantry Division, fought to capture an airstrip on the small coral island of Peleliu. This battle was part of a larger offensive campaign known as Operation Forager, which ran from June to November 1944, in the Pacific Theater.
Major General William Rupertus, commander of the 1st Marine Division, predicted the island would be secured within four days.  However, after repeated Imperial Army defeats in previous island campaigns, Japan had developed new island-defense tactics and well-crafted fortifications that allowed stiff resistance,  extending the battle through more than two months. The heavily outnumbered Japanese defenders put up such stiff resistance, often fighting to the death in the Emperor's name, that the island became known in Japanese as the "Emperor's Island." 
In the U.S., this was a controversial battle because of the island's negligible strategic value and the high casualty rate, which exceeded that of all other amphibious operations during the Pacific War.  The National Museum of the Marine Corps called it "the bitterest battle of the war for the Marines". 
The Dunedin LVT, Landing Vehicle Tracked
The LVT (amtrac) is an amphibious vehicle designed from Donald Roebling's Alligator for military operations on land and sea. 18,000 + were produced between 1941 and 1945. Originally built in Dunedin FL, LVTs played a significant role in our victory in WWII.
The Dunedin LVTs and the Marines stationed in Dunedin served in the first major land offensive in the pacific, Guadalcanal, in 1942 exactly 8 months after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
In a letter send from Okinawa in 1945, USMC Major General Roy S. Geiger called LVTs “the work horses of the Marine Corps. Except for the 'amtracs' it would have been impossible for our troops to get ashore on Tarawa, Saipan, Guam or Pelelieu without taking severe, if not prohibitive losses.”
The Dunedin LVT honors Donald Roebling, the history of LVTs, the Spirit of America, Dunedin, the 1st Marine CorpsLVT Battalion established in Dunedin and those that followed, all Veterans, and all who served Our Nation.
Topics. This memorial is listed in these topic lists: Industry & Commerce &bull War, World II &bull Waterways & Vessels. A significant historical year for this entry is 1941.
Location. 28° 0.273′ N, 82° 47.287′ W. Marker is in Dunedin, Florida, in Pinellas County. Memorial is on Douglas Avenue, on the right when
traveling south. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 360 Douglas Avenue, Dunedin FL 34698, United States of America. Touch for directions.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 2 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Orange Belt Railway Station (approx. half a mile away) The American's Creed / In Grateful Remembrance (approx. half a mile away) Votes For Women (approx. half a mile away) Purple Heart Memorial (approx. 0.6 miles away) Dunedin's African-American Community (approx. one mile away) Dedicated to the Memory of Dr. Willis Stanley Blatchley (approx. one mile away) Dr. Willis S. Blatchley House (approx. 1.1 miles away) Historic Andrews Memorial Chapel (approx. 2.1 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Dunedin.
Related marker. Click here for another marker that is related to this marker.
Major General Roy S Geiger - History
Significant Battles in Marine Corps History
The BATTLE OF BLADENSBURG: In August of 1814, 103 Marines and 400 sailors made a vain attempt to block a force of 4,000 disciplined British troops from advancing on Washington. The Marines stopped three headlong charges before finally being outflanked and driven back. The British then moved down Bladensburg Road to Washington where they burned a number of public buildings before retiring to their vessels in the Chesapeake Bay.
The BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS: In January of 1815, Marines under the command of General Andrew Jackson soundly defeated British Forces that were attacking the city of New Orleans. The British lost approximately 2,000 men while American losses were less than 100.
The BATTLE OF BELLEAU WOOD: Marines fought one of their greatest battles in history at Belleau Wood, France, during World War I. Marines helped to crush a German offensive at Belleau Wood that threatened Paris. In honor of the Marines who fought there, the French renamed the area "the Wood of the Brigade of Marines." German intelligence evaluated the Marines as "storm troops" -- the highest rating on the enemy fighting scale. In reference to the Marine's ferocious fighting ability, German troops called their new enemy "Teufelhunden" or "Devildogs," a nickname in which Marines share pride.
The BATTLE OF WAKE ISLAND: In 1941, following the air attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese struck Wake Island on 8 December. Despite being heavily outnumbered, the Marines mounted a courageous defense before finally falling on 23 December. This small force of Marines caused an extraordinary number of Japanese casualties and damage to the invading force.
The BATTLE OF GUADALCANAL: On 7 August 1942, the 1st Marine Division landed on the beaches of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands and launched the first United States land offensive of World War II. This battle marked the first combat test of the new amphibious doctrine, and also provided a crucial turning point of the war in the Pacific by providing a base to launch further invasions of Japanese-held islands. Amphibious landings followed on the remaining Solomon Islands including New Georgia, Choiseul (Feint), and Bougainville.
The BATTLE OF TARAWA: The Gilbert Islands were the first in the line of advance for the offensive in the Central Pacific. The prime objective was the Tarawa Atoll and Betio Island which had been fortified to the point that the Japanese commander proclaimed that it would take a millon Americans 100 years to conquer it. On 20 November 1943, Marines landed and secured the island within 76 hours, but paid a heavy price in doing so. Because of an extended reef, landing craft could not cross it, and Marines were offloaded hundreds of yards from the beaches. This led to heavy losses from enemy fire. Additionally, many Marines drowned while attempting to wade ashore.
The BATTLE OF THE MARIANA ISLANDS: Due to the need for airfields by the Air Force and advanced bases for the Navy, the Marianas were invaded. This was accomplished by landings on the islands of Saipan, Guam, and Tinian. During June and July of 1943, Lieutenant General Holland M. Smith led a combined invasion force of Marines and soldiers that totaled over 136,000. This was the greatest number of troops, up to that time, to operate in the field under Marine command.
The BATTLE OF IWO JIMA: On 19 February 1945, Marines landed on Iwo Jima in what was the largest all-Marine battle in history. It was also the bloodiest in Marine Corps history. The Marine Corps suffered over 23,300 casualties. The capture of Iwo Jima greatly increased the air support and bombing operations against the Japanese home islands. Of the savage battle, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz said, "Among the Americans who served on Iwo Island, uncommon valor was a common virtue."
The BATTLE OF OKINAWA: In April of 1945, Marines and soldiers landed and secured the island of Okinawa. This marked the last large action of World War II. Due to the death of the Army commander, Major General Roy S. Geiger assumed command of the 10th Army and became the only Marine officer ever to have commanded a field Army.
The BATTLE OF THE CHOSIN RESERVOIR: After pushing far into North Korea during November of 1950, Marines were cut off after the Chinese Communist Forces entered the war. Despite facing a 10-division force sent to annihilate them, Marines smashed seven enemy divisions in their march from the Chosin Reservoir. The major significance of this retrograde movement was that Marines brought out all operable equipment, properly evacuated their wounded and dead, and maintained tactical integrity.
The SECOND BATTLE OF KHE SANH: In January of 1968, Marines defended the firebase at Khe Sanh from an attack force of two North Vietnamese Army (NVA) divisions. Despite heavy bombardment, the Marines held out for over two and a half months before finally forcing the enemy forces to withdraw.
The BATTLE OF HUE CITY: During the Vietnamese holiday of Tet in January of 1968, Communist forces launched a surprise offensive by infiltrating large numbers of their troops into the major population centers of Hue City, South Vietnam. A near division-size unit of NVA troops occupied the city of Hue and the Citadel. Marines fought in built-up areas for the first time since the Korean War foregoing the application of heavy arms to minimize civilian casualties. Fighting was house-to-house with progress measured in yards. The city was secured on 25 February 1968.
About General Roy Geiger (USMC)
General Roy Stanley Geiger (January 25, 1885–January 23, 1947) was a United States Marine Corps General who, during World War II, became the first Marine to lead an army. Marine Corps base Camp Geiger in North Carolina is named in his honor.
Geiger commanded the III Amphibious Corps in the Battle of Okinawa, where he assumed command of the U.S. Tenth Army upon the combat death of Lt. General Simon Bolivar Buckner, Commanding General of the Tenth Army. Geiger led the Tenth Army until relieved by General Joseph Stilwell.
Geiger was born in Middleburg, Florida. He attended Florida State Normal and Industrial College and received an LLB from Stetson University. He enlisted in the Marine Corps as a Private on November 2, 1907 in St. Paul, Minnesota and was sent to Naval Station Norfolk for his initial training. Geiger spent most of his enlisted time at the Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. where he was also promoted to Corporal on June 2, 1908. Following a series of professional examinations and the passing of a Naval Medical Board he accepted his commission as a Second Lieutenant on February 5, 1909.
Following attendance at the Marine Officers' School at Port Royal, South Carolina, he served as a member of the Marine detachments aboard Wisconsin and Delaware. In August 1912, he was assigned to Nicaragua, where he participated in the bombardment, assault and capture of the hills called Coyotepe and Barranca. Further foreign shore duty followed in the Philippines and China with the First Brigade and with the Marine Detachment, American Legation, Peking, China, from 1913 to 1916.
In March 1916, Geiger joined Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida, as a student naval aviator. He successfully completed the course and was designated a naval aviator in June 1917.
Further training followed and in July 1918, he arrived in France. He served with 5 Group, Royal Air Force at Dunkirk. He commanded a squadron of the First Marine Aviation Force and was attached to the Day Wing, Northern Bombing Group. He was detached to the United States in January 1919. For distinguished service in leading bombing raids against the enemy, he was awarded the Navy Cross.
Development of Marine Corps aviation between the wars
From December 1919 to January 1921, he was a squadron commander with the Marine Aviation Force attached to the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade in Haiti. Upon return to the United States and after duty at the Marine Flying Field, Marine Barracks, MCB Quantico, Virginia, he attended Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. He graduated in June 1925. Again he went to foreign shore duty, commanding Observation Squadron Two with the First Brigade in Haiti.
In August 1927, he returned to Quantico as a squadron officer and instructor at the Marine Corps Schools, and in May 1928, was assigned to duty in the Aviation Section, Division of Operations and Training, at Marine Corps Headquarters. After attending the U.S. Army War College and graduating in June 1929, he was ordered to Quantico, where he was assigned duty as Commanding Officer, Aircraft Squadrons, East Coast Expeditionary Force. He returned to Washington for duty with Aeronautics, Navy Department as Officer in Charge, Marine Corps Aviation.
In June 1935, he returned to Quantico as Commanding Officer, Aircraft One, Fleet Marine Force. From June 1939 to March 1941, he was a student at the Senior and the Advanced Courses, Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island. This was followed with a brief tour of duty in the Office of the Naval Attaché, London.
In August 1941, he became Commanding General, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, Fleet Marine Force, in which capacity he was found upon the United States' entry into World War II.
On September 3, 1942, he was stationed at Guadalcanal to lead the Cactus Air Force during the early part of the Guadalcanal Campaign. Until November 4, 1942, he was commander of the combined Army, Navy and Marines Air Forces stationed here as well as the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. He was awarded a Gold Star in lieu of a second Navy Cross for his service on Guadalcanal. His citation reads in part, "Despite almost continuous bombardment by enemy aircraft, hostile naval gunfire and shore based artillery, the combined total of Army, Navy and Marine Corps units stationed at Guadalcanal under Major General Geiger's efficiently coordinated command succeeded in shooting down 268 Japanese planes in aerial combat and inflicting damage on a number estimated to be as great…Sank six enemy vessels, including one heavy cruiser, possibly sank three destroyers and one heavy cruiser, and damaged 18 other ships, including one heavy cruiser and five light cruisers."
He was recalled to Marine Corps Headquarters in May 1943, to become Director of Aviation. In November 1943, he returned to the field, this time as Commanding General of the I Amphibious Corps and led the Corps from November 9, to December 15, 1943, in the Battle of Bougainville, for which he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal.
Re-designated III Amphibious Corps in April 1944, he led this organization in the invasion and subsequent recapture of Guam during July and August 1944, and in the assault and capture of the southern Palau Islands in September and October of the same year. For those operations he was awarded two Gold Award stars in lieu of a second and third Distinguished Service Medal.
Geiger led this Corps into action for the fourth time as part of the Tenth Army in the invasion and capture of Okinawa. On June 18, 1945, Geiger assumed command of the Tenth Army following the death in combat of Lt. General Buckner. To this day, Geiger remains the only Marine officer to ever hold command of a field army. In July 1945, he assumed duties as Commanding General of the Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, which position he held until called back to Headquarters Marine Corps in November 1946.
Geiger was promoted to four-star general posthumously by the 80th Congress to be effective from January 23, 1947.
General Geiger is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
For his part in this action he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal. His citation reads in part: Going ashore with the early landing elements on April 1, 1945, he began a bitter three-month campaign . with outstanding professional skill, forceful leadership and unswerving determination, he directed his units . repeatedly disregarding personal safety to secure a first hand estimate of the battle situation and inspiring his men to heights of bravery and accomplishment. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/6943555/roy-stanley-geiger
World War II United States Marine Corps General. Nicknamed "Jiggs," he became the first US Marine officer to lead an American army in combat, which he accomplished during World War II. After completing high school, he attended Florida State Normal and Industrial College (now Florida Memorial University) in Miami Gardens, Florida and received a Bachelor of Law Degree from Stetson University in DeLand, Florida.
In November 1907 he enlisted in the Marine Corps as a private in St. Paul, Minnesota and was sent to Naval Station Norfolk for his initial training. He spent most of his enlisted time at the Marine Barracks, Washington, DC, where he was also promoted to the rank of corporal in June 1908.
After a series of professional examinations and the passing of a Naval Medical Board, he was given a commission as a 2nd lieutenant in February 1909. Following attendance at the Marine Officers' School at Port Royal, South Carolina, he served as a member of the Marine detachments aboard the USS Wisconsin and Delaware. In August 1912, he was assigned to Nicaragua, where he participated in the bombardment, assault and capture of the hills called Coyotepe and Barranca.
He was then sent to the Philippines and China with the First Brigade and with the Marine Detachment, American Legation, Peking, China, from 1913 to 1916. In March 1916 he joined Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida, as a student naval aviator and successfully completed the course and was designated a naval aviator in June 1917. In July 1918, during World War I, he arrived in France and served with Number 5 Group, British Royal Air Force at Dunkirk, France. He commanded a squadron of the 1st Marine Aviation Force and was attached to the Day Wing, Northern Bombing Group.
He returned to the US in January 1919 and from December 1919 to January 1921, he was a squadron commander with the Marine Aviation Force attached to the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade in Haiti. After returning to the US and following duty at the Marine Flying Field, Marine Barracks, Quantico, Virginia, he attended Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, graduating in June 1925.
He then returned to Haiti to commanding Observation Squadron Two with the First Marine Brigade. In August 1927, he returned to Quantico as a squadron officer and instructor at the Marine Corps Schools, and in May 1928, he was assigned to duty in the Aviation Section, Division of Operations and Training, at Marine Corps Headquarters, Washington DC. After attending the US Army War College at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and graduating in June 1929, he was ordered back to Quantico, where he was assigned duty as Commanding Officer, Aircraft Squadrons, East Coast Expeditionary Force.
He returned to Washington DC for duty with Aeronautics, Navy Department as Officer in Charge, Marine Corps Aviation. In June 1935 he returned to Quantico again as Commanding Officer, Aircraft One, Fleet Marine Force, and from June 1939 to March 1941, he was a student at the Senior and the Advanced Courses, Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island, followed by a brief tour of duty in the Office of the Naval Attaché, London.
In August 1941 he became Commanding General, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, Fleet Marine Force, in which capacity he served upon the US entry into World War II on December 7, 1941.
In September 1942, he was stationed at Guadalcanal to lead the Cactus Air Force during the early part of the Guadalcanal Campaign. Until November 4, 1942, he was commander of the combined Army, Navy and Marines Air Forces stationed here as well as the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. In May 1943 he returned to the US to become Director of Aviation at Marine Corps Headquarters.
The following November, as a major general, he returned to the Pacific Theater as Commanding General of the 1st Amphibious Corps and led the Corps from November 9, until December 15, 1943, at the Battle of Bougainville, in the Territory of New Guinea. Redesignated 3rd Amphibious Corps in April 1944, he led this organization in the invasion and subsequent recapture of Guam during July and August 1944, and in the assault and capture of the southern Palau Islands in September and October of the same year.
He then led this Corps into action for the fourth time as part of the Tenth Army in the invasion and capture of Okinawa. On June 18, 1945, he assumed command of the Tenth Army following the death in combat of Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. To this day, he remains the only Marine officer to ever hold command of a field army. In July 1945, he was promoted to lieutenant general and assumed duties as Commanding General of the Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, until he was called back to Headquarters Marine Corps in November 1946.
He died at the age of 61 shortly before he was scheduled to retire, having continuously served 40 years in the US Marine Corps. He was promoted to the rank of four-star general posthumously by the 80th Congress, effective the date of his death. Among his military decorations and awards include the Navy Cross with one award star, the Navy Distinguished Service Medal with two award stars, the Army Distinguished Service Medal, the Navy Presidential Unit Citation with one service star, the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal with two service stars, the Nicaraguan Campaign Medal (1912), the World War I Victory Medal, the Haitian Campaign Medal (1921), the Nicaraguan Campaign Medal (1933), the American Defense Service Medal with base clasp, the American Campaign Medal, the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with five service stars, and the World War II Victory Medal. Marine Corps base Camp Geiger in North Carolina is named in his honor.
Death and burial ground of Geiger, Roy Stanley “Rugged Roy”.. Roy Geiger died suddenly at the age of 61, on 23-01-1947 at Bethesda, Maryland, is buried with his wife Eunice, born Renshaw, who died old age 88, on 04-01-1982, on Arlington National Cemetery, Section 2. Close by the graves the Lieutenant General, Commander 92 nd “ Negro Division”, Edward “Ned” Almond , Navy Admiral, Battle of the Leyte Gulf, Robert Carney , Major General, Commander 8 th Bomber Command Europe, Frederick Anderson , Rear Admiral, Commander Destroyer Greyson, Frederic Bell , Navy Admiral, “Operation Crossroads” Atomic-bomb tests on the Island Bikini Atoll, William Blandy and General, Commander 32 nd Infantry Division, Clovis Byers .
Major General Roy S Geiger - History
A mountain system of eastern North America extending from the Canadian provinces of Newfoundland, Quebec, and New Brunswick southwest to central Alabama.
(AGC-1: dp. 13,910 1. 459'3" b. 63' dr. 24' s. 16.4 k. cpl. 368 a. 2 5", 8 40mm., 14 20mm. cl. Appalachian T. C2-S-B1)
Appalachian (AGC-1) was laid down under a Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 200) on 4 November 1942 at Kearny, N.J., by the Federal Shipbuilding & Drydock Co. launched on 29 January 1943 sponsored by Mrs. John Frank McInnis aced by the Navy on 27 February 1943 converted at Brooklyn, NY., by the Todd Shipbuilding Co. for naval service as an amphibious flagship and commissioned on 2 October 1943, Capt. James M. Fernald in command.
Following shakedown in the Chesapeake Bay, Appalachian headed south transited the Panama Canal and reached San Diego, Calif, on 26 November. There, after elements of the 4th Marine Division had embarked, and Rear Admiral Richard L. Conolly had broken his flag in Appalachian, she got underway on 13 January 1944, bound for Hawaii.
After a one-day stop in Pearl Harbor, the ship steamed westward to take part in the invasion of Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands. The objectives of the northern attack force, which included Appalachian, were the islands of Roi and Namur. The attack opened on 31 January and, the next day, Appalachian entered Kwajalein lagoon and began disembarking th e men and eq ui pment of the headquarters battalion of the 4th Marine Division. The area was secured by 5 February. Rear Admi- ral Conolly shifted his flag to Maryland (BB-46), and Appalachian set sail the next day for the Ellice Islands.
Her crew enjoyed a week-long respite at Funafuti before the ship sailed to Guadalcanal. She operated in the Solomon Islands until 29 March when she began a return voy age to Hawaii. The vessel reached Pearl Harbor on 8 April and began resupplying.
Appalachian returned to Guadalcanal in late April, spent the next six weeks preparing for the impending assault on the Marianas, then, early in June, sailed to Kwajalein, the final stagin area for the operation.
On 12 June, Appalachian-with Major General Roy S. Geiger, USMC, embarked-sortied in a group of transports carrying troops of his 3d Amphibious Corps. These lea hernecks were scheduled to assault Guam. When the force had progressed to within 50 miles of its objective, it was ordered to reverse course to avoid a powerful Japanese fleet which was then approaching the Marianas to contest the American landings.
While the American 5th Fleet routed the Japanese warships in the Battle of the Philippine Sea and American ground forces fought fanatical Japanese defensive forces on Saipan, the convoy steamed in readiness on a rectangular course for 16 days. The Guam attack was then postponed, and the group put in at Eniwetok on 28 June for replenishment. It once more set sail for Guam on 11 July. The ships reached their objective on the 14th, and Appalachian joined in the preassault bombardment that morning and continued providing fire support throughout the invasion. On 30 July, Appalachian dropped anchor in Apra Harbor and remained there through the end of the struggle for the island. Guam was officially secured on 10 August, and Appalachian got underway that day, bound for Pearl Harbor.
Between 21 August and 2 September, Appalachian carried out training exercises off Maui in preparation for an assault on Yap. However, this operation was later cancelled. The ship de- Hawaiian waters on 15 September and proceeded to Manus, Admiralty Islands, for additional training.
Appalachian dropped anchor in Seeadler Harbor on 3 October and reported to the 7th Fleet for duty. She sortied on the 14th with invasion forces, bound for Leyte, Philippines. Major General A. V. Arnold, Commander of the Army's 7th Infantry Division, was on board Appalachian. The landings on Leyte, which began on 20 October, met little opposition. After her troops had gone ashore, the ship stood by to supply provisions and fresh water to smaller craft in the area until the 23d, then headed for New Guinea, and arrived in Humboldt Bay five days later.
The ship sailed on for Noumea, New Caledonia, on 20 November. After her arrival there on the 26th, the crew enjoyed a period of liberty. Appalachian sailed for the Solomons on 17 December, engaged briefly in invasion rehearsals at Guadalcanal, and stood out to sea on Christmas Day bound for Manus.
For Appalachian, the year 1945 began with the invasion of the Philippine island of Luzon. She reached Lingayen Gulf on 11 January, landed her troops, and departed the following day. As she was steaming through the South China Sea, she was attacked by Jap anese planes. However, she was able to evade the attackers and reached Leyte Gulf on the 15th.
Appalachian sailed east on 18 January and made port calls at Ulithi and Pearl Harbor before reaching San Francisco, Calif., ,on 13 February. She entered the Marc Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, Calif., on Valentine's Day to begin overhaul. The ship set out once more for Hawaiian waters on 10 April, arrived in Pearl Harbor on the 16th, and began training exercises off Maui.
She sailed for the Marianas on 16 May, and reached Saipan 11 days later. The vessel remained at anchor there until 9 July, when she got underway for the Philippines. She pulled into Manila on 13 July and operated in waters of the archipelago through the end of World War II.
The ship set out for occupation duty in Japan on 18 September, arrived at Aomori at the northern end of Honshu on the 25th, and landed troops who took possession of the town. Soldiers whom she earned also occupied other cities including Ominato, Hakodate, Otani, Yokohama, Yokosuka, Matsuyama, and Hiroshima.
Appalachian departed Japan on 22 November 1945, bound for the west coast of the United States. After reaching the United States, she remained at San Francisco until 12 April 1946 when she was assigned to Joint Task Force 1 which was being established for Operation "Crossroads," the atomic bomb tests to be carried out that summer at Bikini Atoll. During the months of May, June, and July, Appalachian served as a headquarters for press representatives before returning to San Francisco on 16 August.
She became the flagship of the 5th Fleet on 13 September and also served the Pacific Fleet in a similar role between 28 October 1946 and 30 January 1947. During this time, the vessel operated out of San Diego. She was decommissioned there on 21 May 1947 and placed in reserve. She was subsequently transferred to the Maritime Administration for disposal, and she was scrapped in 1960. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 1 March 1959.
US Tenth Army
Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner, USA (KIA 18 Jun)
Major General Roy S. Geiger, USMC (18 Jun thru 23 Jun)
Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, USA (from 23 Jun)
Northern Landing Beaches Ώ] [ edit | edit source ]
III Amphibious Corps
Major General Roy S. Geiger, USMC
Embarked in Task Force 53
6th Marine Division (24,356 officers and enlisted)
1st Marine Division (26,274 officers and enlisted)
Southern Landing Beaches ΐ] [ edit | edit source ]
XXIV Army Corps
Major General John R. Hodge, USA
Embarked in Task Force 55
7th Infantry ("Bayonet") Division (21,929 officers and enlisted)
- Division Commander: Major General Archibald V. Arnold, USA
- – Purple Beaches – Orange Beaches – Reserve
- Field Artillery Battalions, 105mm: 48th, 49th, 57th
- Field Artillery Battalions, 155mm: 31st
- Division Commander: Major General James L. Bradley, USA
- 381st Infantry Regiment – White Beaches
- 383rd Infantry Regiment – Brown Beaches – Reserve
- Field Artillery Battalions, 105mm: 361st, 362nd, 921st
- Field Artillery Battalions, 155mm: 363rd
27th Infantry ("New York") Division (16,143 officers and enlisted)
- Division Commander: Major General George W. Griner, Jr., USA
- – landed L+8 – landed L+8 – landed L+8
- Field Artillery Battalions, 105mm: 104th, 105th, 249th
- Field Artillery Battalions, 155mm: 106th
- Division Commander: Major General Andrew D. Bruce, USA
- – landed 17 Apr (Green Beach)
- 305th Infantry Regiment – landed 17 Apr (Red Beaches 1 & 2) – landed 17 Apr (Red Beaches 3 & 4)
- Field Artillery Battalions, 105mm: 304th, 305th, 902nd
- Field Artillery Battalions, 155mm: 306th
- One Marine BLT
Western Islands Α] [ edit | edit source ]
Ie Shima, etc.:
77th Infantry ("Statue of Liberty") Division (20,981 officers and enlisted)
Embarked in Task Group 51.1
General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell
During World War II, General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell, commander of Tenth Army,(1) relied on the L-4 Cub extensively. He flew with the Air OPs, many times with the windows open. "On one occasion he was being flown by SSgt Lyle W. White on a mission off Okinawa. A gust of wind blew through the Cub's cockpit and the general's battered campaign hat, that he had worn for over 20 years blew out the window.
"General Stilwell sadly watched his hat float down and plop into the sea. He remarked, 'I'd sure like to go down there and rescue my old friend.' Upon landing, Stilwell offered $25 to anyone who recovered the hat much to his delight, it was returned to him 4 hours later."(2)
(1) On June 18, 1945, Tenth Army commander on Okinawa, Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner, was killed by shrapnel from Japanese anti-tank gun fire. The next day, Marine Corps Major General Roy S. Geiger, commander of the III Amphibious Marine Force (1st and 6th Marine Divisions) was promoted to lieutenant general and given command of Tenth Army. This arrangement lasted only four days, as Lieutenant General Stilwell arrived on the scene to assume command.
(2) See page 170, chapter IV, "The War Years: Europe, Pacific and Korea," The Army Aviation Story, by Richard Tierney with Fred Montgomery.
Feifer, George, Tennozan: The Battle of Okinawa and the Atomic Bomb, Ticknor & Fields, New York, 1992.
Frank, Benis M., Okinawa: Touchstone to Victory, Ballantine Books, Inc., New York, NY, 1969.
Nichols, Major Charles S., Jr., USMC and Shaw, Henry I., Jr., Okinawa: Victory in the Pacific, Charles E. Tuttle Co., Publishers, Rutland, VT., 1955. Printed under the auspices of the Historical Branch, G-3 Division Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps.
Tierney, Richard with Montgomery, Fred, The Army Aviation Story, Colonial Press, Northport, AL., 1963.
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Watch the video: Major General William Hix on the future of strategic land power (May 2022).
96th Infantry ("Deadeye") Division (22,330 officers and enlisted)