MARTIN PM-1 - History

MARTIN PM-1 - History

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Manufacturer: Martin

Type: Scout

Power Plant: 2 Wright 1820-64 Cyclone 575hp

Wingspan: 72Ft 8inch

Ceiling: 9,500ft

Length: 49ft 4inch

Max Speed: 118MPH

Weight: 19,0621bs (gross)

Martin Luther

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Martin Luther, (born November 10, 1483, Eisleben, Saxony [Germany]—died February 18, 1546, Eisleben), German theologian and religious reformer who was the catalyst of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. Through his words and actions, Luther precipitated a movement that reformulated certain basic tenets of Christian belief and resulted in the division of Western Christendom between Roman Catholicism and the new Protestant traditions, mainly Lutheranism, Calvinism, the Anglican Communion, the Anabaptists, and the Antitrinitarians. He is one of the most influential figures in the history of Christianity.

Who was Martin Luther?

Martin Luther, a 16th-century monk and theologian, was one of the most significant figures in Christian history. His beliefs helped birth the Reformation—which would give rise to Protestantism as the third major force within Christendom, alongside Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. His denunciation of the Catholic church’s doctrine and practices triggered a series of proceedings that culminated in the Edict of Worms, a document that proclaimed him a heretic and declared war on Protestantism. But his actions had already set the Reformation in motion, which would introduce new religious, political, and economic trajectories to Europe and the world.

What is Lutheranism?

Lutheranism is one of the five major strands of Protestantism. It is rooted in the teachings of the 16th-century theologian Martin Luther. Lutheranism’s tenets—at odds with many aspects of Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy—include the rejection of the hierarchical split between clergy and laity, in favor of Scripture as the ultimate authority in matters of faith (sola scriptura) the recognition of only two of the seven traditionally recognized sacraments, namely baptism and the Eucharist and the understanding that sinners are saved solely by God’s grace (sola gratia), by way of their faith in Christ (sola fide). Lutheranism now has over 65 million adherents.

What was radical about Martin Luther’s teachings?

Martin Luther’s understanding of faith departed from the prevailing Catholic belief system in many ways: he believed that salvation is a gift God alone grants to sinners who passively affirm their faith in Christ, rather than something a sinner can actively obtain through the performance of good works that the Eucharist is a sacrament that undergoes consubstantiation as opposed to transubstantiation and that the church is an egalitarian “priesthood of all believers” and not hierarchically divided between laity and clergy. His translation of the Bible into German vernacular lessened the laity’s dependence on what he saw as a predatory ecclesiastical authority.

What implications did Martin Luther’s work have for realms other than the religious?

Martin Luther’s teachings had consequences for Western civilization beyond just spawning a new Christian movement. His rhetoric was appropriated by people seeking other types of social reform, such as peasants during the Peasants’ War (1524–25). His translation of the Bible into the vernacular came to bear heavily on the development of the German language. And as Max Weber famously argued, the Protestant belief that emerged from Luther’s teachings paved the way for the emergence of capitalism, a paradigmatic shift that had implications that were perhaps even more far-reaching than the Reformation itself.

Did Martin Luther have a family?

Martin Luther did have a family, which reflects one of the radical aspects of his interpretation of Christianity: that he, even as an ordained priest, could marry and have sex. In 1525 he married Katherina von Bora, a former nun remembered by Luther’s students as being well versed in theology. By all accounts, Katherina and Luther had a warm and loving family life, raising five children together. The death of their daughter Magdalene affected Luther profoundly, and that loss—along with the death of a close friend of his not long before—may explain the fixation on death that characterizes his later writings.

History of McMurdo Station

The ice-free southern tip of the Hut Point Peninsula on Ross Island in Antarctica has a history of over 100 years of exploration and scientific history and is the site of the present day McMurdo Station. [2] This site is located just 729 nautical miles from the South Pole and is where Robert F. Scott staged the first expedition to the South Pole in 1902. [2] The United States established a permanent base at this site beginning in December 1955 as part of Operation Deep Freeze I. [2] Known as Naval Air Facility McMurdo, this site was to serve as a sea port and logistics base from which to build and support a research facility at the geographic South Pole. [2] The name McMurdo was chosen to honour a lieutenant on the British ship HMS Terror that discovered Ross Island on an Antarctic expedition in 1841. [2] In 1958, the site was renamed to McMurdo Station and has since maintained the ability to support a population of over 1200 people. [2] McMurdo Station serves as the hub for activity in the Antarctic and is currently operated by the United States Antarctic Program (USAP), a division of the Nation Science Foundation (NSF). [2]

Commercial pilot Christian Martin indicted in Kentucky triple homicide

One victim was shot to death and two others were found in a burned car.

Pilot arrested and charged with 3 counts of murder

In a stunning twist to a cold-case triple homicide in Kentucky, a commercial pilot was arrested on an airplane full of passengers and charged with the brutal 2015 killings of three of his neighbors, including two whose bodies were found burned beyond recognition in a torched car, authorities said.

Christian R. Martin, 51, a former Army Ranger major and a pilot for the American Airlines subsidiary PSA Airlines, was arrested on Saturday at the Muhammad Ali International Airport in Louisville, a day after a grand jury indicted him on three counts of murder and arson stemming from the killings of Calvin and Pamela Phillips and their neighbor, Edward Dansereau.

Martin was taken into custody on an airplane loaded with passengers as he was preparing for takeoff, authorities said.

A jail booking photo of Martin shows him still in his pilot's uniform.

Calvin Phillips, 59, was found shot to death inside his home in Pembroke, Kentucky, in November 2015. The bodies of his wife, Pamela, 58, and Dansereau, 63, were discovered burned beyond recognition several miles from their neighborhood in a car that had been driven into a cornfield and set on fire, investigators said.

Kentucky Attorney General Andy Beshear said his office took over the investigation after the son of the slain couple, Matt Phillips, met with him two years ago and expressed fears the case might never be solved.

"He was worried that the case was stalled and was worried that justice would not come," Beshear said in a video statement released on Saturday. "We hope this is one example of when you never stop seeking justice when you never give up on a case that we can truly get important results for our families."

Martin was indicted by a Christian County grand jury on three counts of murder, one count of arson, one count of attempted arson, two counts of burglary and three counts of tampering with physical evidence.

"Every day, we are haunted by what was done to them and haunted further that someone was still free to do as they wish, beyond the civility of mankind or laws of our nation," relatives of the Calvin and Pamela Phillips, and Dansereau said in a joint statement. "We are overwhelmed with this positive step towards resolution for people we love dearly. We look forward to justice in court, and we look forward to a verdict to bring an end to this terror, and a fresh start at healing."

In a statement to ABC News on Monday, Martin's daughter, McKenzie, defended her father.

“My dad is an American hero. He’s served his whole life and before this had a spotless record," Martin's daughter said in her statement. "We believe that he is innocent of these charges and hope that the truth will come out.”

Martin is scheduled to be arraigned on May 22 at the Christian County Justice Center in Hopkinsville, Kentucky. If convicted, he could face the death penalty, prosecutors said.

He is being held without bail.

At the time of the slayings, Martin lived across the street from the Phillips couple and Dansereau.

In a 2016 interview with NBC affiliate station WSMV-TV in Louisville, Martin claimed Calvin Phillips was having an affair with his wife but denied any involvement in the murders.

Asked in the interview if he believed he would be charged in the killings, Martin told WSMV, "No, I have no worries about that."

Martin allegedly broke into the Phillips' home on Nov. 18, 2015, and fatally shot Calvin Phillips with a .45 caliber pistol, according to an indictment unsealed on Monday. That same day, he allegedly shot and killed Pamela Phillips and Dansereau with a .22 caliber firearm, according to the indictment.

Martin allegedly put the bodies of Dansereau and Pamela Phillips in a car and drove into a cornfield several miles from their neighborhood and set the vehicle on fire with the victims' bodies inside, according to the indictment.

The killings occurred just days before Martin faced a military court-martial on charges of on abuse of a child under the age of 16 and conduct unbecoming an officer, according to military records. Martin was ultimately found guilty on lesser charges of mishandling classified information and simple assault, according to records.

He was dismissed from the military and placed under "confinement for 90 days," according to the records.

His attorney said Phillips was scheduled to testify in the court-martial proceedings, but the nature of his testimony was unclear.

Every day, we are haunted by what was done to them and haunted further that someone was still free to do as they wish.

Martin's defense lawyer, Tucker Richardson, told ABC Nashville affiliate WKRN that Phillips and Martin were friends, adding that he doesn't believe Martin committed the murders.

"All I can say is that man didn't kill those three people," Richardson said.

Richardson said that Phillips, who initially was set to testify against Martin in the case, was actually going to be the defense's "star witness," adding that if prosecutors believe Martin killed Phillips because he was due to testify, there is "nothing further from the truth."

"So, it just floors me," Richardson said. "I don't know what they came up with after four years that led to this indictment."

Richardson will likely not be representing Martin for the murder trial but may serve as an adviser to the defense team, he said.

Shortly after the homicides of the Phillips couple and Dansereau, Martin moved to North Carolina.

A former Army helicopter pilot, Martin began working as a pilot for PSA in January 2018, according to the airline.

In a statement to ABC News, American Airlines officials said Martin passed a routine criminal background check that found "no criminal history that would disqualify him from being a commercial pilot."

"All of us at American Airlines and PSA Airlines are deeply saddened to have learned about these allegations from 2015," the airline's statement reads. "Our team was made aware of the indictment [Saturday] morning after his arrest at Louisville International Airport. We have an unwavering commitment to the safety and security of our customers and team members, and we will provide any investigative assistance possible to law enforcement throughout their investigation."


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Origins Edit

Glenn L. Martin Company was founded by aviation pioneer Glenn Luther Martin on August 16, 1912. [3] Martin started building military trainers in Santa Ana, California, and in 1916, Martin accepted a merger offer from the Wright Company, creating the Wright-Martin Aircraft Company in September. [1] This new company did not go well, and Glenn Martin left to form a second Glenn L. Martin Company on September 10, 1917 it was based in Cleveland, Ohio. [3] (Later, its headquarters would be moved to Baltimore, Maryland.)

Mexican Revolution Edit

In 1913 Mexican insurgents from the northwestern state of Sonora bought a single seater Martin Pusher biplane in Los Angeles with the intention of attacking federal naval forces attacking the port of Guaymas. The aircraft was shipped on May 5, 1913, in five crates to Tucson, Arizona via Wells Fargo Express, and then moved through the border into Mexico to the town of Naco, Sonora. The aircraft, named "Sonora" by the insurgents, was reassembled there and fitted with a second seat for a bomber position. [ citation needed ]

The "Sonora", armed with rudimentary 3-inch pipe bombs, performed the first known air to naval bombing runs in history. [ citation needed ]

World War I Edit

For the Dutch East Indies a number of planes were delivered, with the first flight on November 6, 1915. It involved 2 types TE, 6 types TT and 8 types R. Martin's first big success came during World War I with the MB-1 bomber, [4] a large biplane design ordered by the United States Army on January 17, 1918. The MB-1 entered service after the end of hostilities. A follow-up design, the MB-2, proved successful [4] 20 were ordered by the Army Air Service, the first five of them under the company designation and the last 15 as the NBS-1 (Night Bomber, Short range). Although the War Department ordered 110 more, it retained the ownership rights of the design, and put the order out for bid. The production orders were given to other companies that had bid lower, Curtiss (50), L.W.F. Engineering (35), and Aeromarine (25). [5] The design was the only standard bomber used by the Air Service until 1930, and was used by seven squadrons of the Air Service/Air Corps: four in Virginia, two in Hawaii, and one in the Philippines.

Inter-war years Edit

In 1924 the Martin Company underbid Curtiss for the production of a Curtiss-designed scout bomber, the SC-1, and ultimately Martin produced 404 of these. In 1929 Martin sold the Cleveland plant and built a new one in Middle River, Maryland, northeast of Baltimore.

During the 1930s, Martin built flying boats for the U.S. Navy, and the innovative Martin B-10 bomber for the Army. [6] The Martin Company also produced the noted China Clipper flying boats used by Pan American Airways for its transpacific San Francisco to the Philippines route.

World War II Edit

During World War II, a few of Martin's most successful designs were the B-26 Marauder [7] and A-22 Maryland bombers, the PBM Mariner and JRM Mars [8] [9] flying boats, widely used for air-sea rescue, anti-submarine warfare and transport. The 1941 Office for Emergency Management film Bomber was filmed in the Martin facility in Baltimore, and showed aspects of the production of the B-26. [10]

Martin ranked 14th among U.S. corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. [11] The company built 1,585 B-26 Marauders and 531 Boeing B-29 Superfortresses at its new bomber plant in Nebraska, just south of Omaha at Offutt Field. Among the B-29s manufactured there were all the Silverplate aircraft, including Enola Gay and Bockscar, which dropped the two war-ending atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. [12]

Postwar Edit

On April 22, 1957, the company name was changed to The Martin Company. [13]

Postwar efforts in aeronautics by the Martin Company included two unsuccessful prototype bombers, the XB-48 and the XB-51, the marginally successful AM Mauler, the successful B-57 Canberra tactical bombers, both the P5M Marlin and P6M SeaMaster seaplanes, and the Martin 4-0-4 twin-engine passenger airliner.

The Martin Company moved into the aerospace manufacturing business. It produced the Vanguard rocket, used by the American space program as one of its first satellite booster rockets as part of Project Vanguard. The Vanguard was the first American space exploration rocket designed from scratch to be an orbital launch vehicle — rather than being a modified sounding rocket (like the Juno I) or a ballistic missile (like the U.S. Army's Redstone missile). Martin also designed and manufactured the huge and heavily armed Titan I and LGM-25C Titan II Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs). Martin Company of Orlando, Florida, was the prime contractor for the US Army's Pershing missile. [14]

The Martin Company was one of two finalists for the command and service modules of the Apollo Program. NASA awarded the design and production contracts for these to the North American Aviation Corporation.

The Martin Company went further in the production of larger booster rockets for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the U.S. Air Force with its Titan III series of over 100 rockets produced, including the Titan IIIA, the more-important Titan IIIC, and the Titan IIIE. Besides hundreds of Earth satellites, these rockets were essential for the sending to outer space of the two space probes of the Voyager Project to the outer planets the two space probes of the Viking Project to Mars, and the two Helios probes into low orbits around the Sun. (closer, even, than Mercury.)

Finally the US Air Force required a booster rocket that could launch heavier satellites than either the Titan IIIE or the Space Shuttle. The Martin Company responded with its extremely large Titan IV series of rockets. When the Titan IV came into service, it could carry a heavier payload to orbit than any other rocket in production. Besides its use by the Air Force to launch its sequence of very heavy reconnaissance satellites, one Titan IV, with a powerful Centaur rocket upper stage, was used to launch the heavy Cassini space probe to the planet Saturn in 1997. The Cassini probe orbited Saturn from 2004 to 2017, successfully returning mountains of scientific data.

The halting of production of the Titan IV in 2004 brought to an end production of the last rocket able to carry a heavier payload than the Space Shuttle, which itself ended in 2011.

The Martin Company merged with the American-Marietta Corporation, a chemical products and construction materials manufacturer, in 1961 to form the Martin Marietta Corporation. In 1995, Martin Marietta, then the nation's 3rd-largest defense contractor, merged with the Lockheed Corporation, then the nation's second largest defense contractor, to form the Lockheed Martin Corporation, becoming the largest such company in the world. [2]

The Martin Company employed many of the founders and chief engineers of the American aerospace industry, including:

    – moved on as aerospace engineer at General Electric – founder of Douglas Aircraft, later as McDonnell Douglas (now part of Boeing) – founded Bell Aircraft, now Bell Helicopter – founded McDonnell Aircraft, later as McDonnell Douglas (now part of Boeing) – CEO and Chairman of North American Aviation – concepts used to create NASA's Space Shuttle – Brewster Aeronautical Corporation

Martin also taught William Boeing how to fly and also sold him his first airplane.

The Power of Pamphlets: A Brief History

The Reformation began on Oct. 31, 1517, when Martin Luther, as legend has it, nailed his “95 Theses” to a church door in Wittenberg, Germany. Whatever he actually did—he may have just attached the papers to the door or delivered them to clerical authorities—Luther was protesting Catholics’ sale of “indulgences” to give sinners at least partial absolution. The protest immediately went viral, to use a modern term, thanks to the new “social media” of the day—the printed pamphlet.

The development of the printing press around 1440 had set the stage: In the famous words of the German historian Bernd Moeller, “Without printing, no Reformation.” But the pamphlet deserves particular recognition. Unlike books, pamphlets were perfect for the mass market: easy to print and therefore cheap to buy.

By the mid-16th century, the authorities in France, Germany and England were fighting a rear-guard action to ban pamphlets. Despite various edicts in 1523, ’53, ’66 and ’89, the pamphlet flourished—and gained some highly placed authors. Although she professed disdain for the medium, Queen Elizabeth I contributed speeches to a 1586 pamphlet that justified her decision to execute Mary, Queen of Scots. Two years later, the Spanish printed a slew of propaganda pamphlets that tried to turn King Philip II’s failed invasion attempt of England into a qualified success.

By the 17th century, virulent “pamphlet wars” accompanied every major religious and political controversy in Europe. By then, pamphleteers needed an exceptionally strong voice to be heard above the din—something even harder to achieve once newspapers and periodicals joined the battle for readers as the century matured.

Historic Aircraft: The New Flying Boats

During World War I-with the support of a fledgling aircraft industry-the U.S. Navy developed some excellent patrol flying boats. These included the only American-designed aircraft to see combat in the war as well as the NC series flying boats, with the NC-4 being the first aircraft to cross the Atlantic in 1919.

Immediately after that conflict, the emphasis in naval aviation was on carrier operations, and patrol-plane development was carried out on a very limited budget. Building on the F-5-L flying boat-developed from the British-designed Felixstowe F.5 aircraft-the Naval Aircraft Factory (NAF) in Philadelphia produced an improved version of the twin-engine flying boat, which was redesignated PN-5 in 1922. 1 The designation PN-6 was used for two modified variants (originally F-6-L).

The single NAF-developed PN-7 was a much-improved aircraft, with new wings and an airfoil section, which provided increased lift. Two Wright 525-hp engines powered it. Although the wing design was successful, the engines were unreliable, and the wood hull required considerable maintenance.

The next two aircraft-designated PN-8-had two Packard 475-hp water-cooled V-12 engines and a metal hull. The subsequent PN-9 (converted from one of the PN-8s) and two newly built PN-10 aircraft were similar. The engines had problems-the Navy always preferred simpler, air-cooled engines-and radial engines were thus used to produce the later PN-12.

The PN-9, however, was a good performer. On 1-2 May 1925, Navy Lieutenants Clarence H. Schildhauer and James R. Kyle, on a test flight over Philadelphia, broke the world endurance record for Class C seaplanes by remaining aloft for 28 hours, 35 minutes, 27 seconds.

The following 1 September, the PN-9 took off from San Francisco for Pearl Harbor. With Commander John Rodgers-Naval Aviator No. 2-in command and navigating, and a crew of four, the aircraft was heavily laden with 1,278 gallons of fuel in its tanks and another 50 gallons in five-gallon cans. The plane nevertheless ran out of fuel and came down several hundred miles short of its destination. Despite an extensive air search, the PN-9 was lost at sea for ten days. Rodgers and his crew, meanwhile, improvised. Relying on their training as sailors, they fashioned a sail out of the lower wing's fabric and set out for Kauai Island. After covering about 450 miles they were sighted on 10 September by the submarine R-4 (SS-81) about ten miles short of their goal. Still, the aircraft had flown 1,841 statue miles, a record for Class C seaplanes that stood for almost five years.

Four PN-11 variants were built, with two engines being evaluated in the aircraft. The hull lines of the PN-11s marked the first major departure from the F-5-L design, featuring a wider hull that eliminated the sponsons, a feature of the older hull. The first aircraft was also fitted with twin vertical tail surfaces. (The last three aircraft were later designated XP4N.)

The two follow-on PN-12s represented the definitive design. Like its predecessors in the PN-series, the PN-12 was a biplane designed specifically for the patrol/antisubmarine role. Single .30-caliber machine guns were fitted in the bow and amidships, and four 230-pound bombs could be carried under the lower wing. Equally powered by twin 525-hp engines, one PN-12 had twin Pratt and Whitney Hornet R-1850s, and the other Wright Cyclone R-1750s. They gave the aircraft a top speed of 114 mph and a range at cruising speed of just over 1,300 miles. It was flown by a crew of five (in open cockpits), and a relief crew could be carried for long patrols. On 3-5 May 1928, the Cyclone-powered PN-12 set another world seaplane record, covering a distance of 1,243 statue miles in 17 hours, 55 minutes.

The Naval Aircraft Factory was not capable of large-scale production, and the Navy decided to have the PN-12 manufactured by private aircraft companies. The Douglas Aircraft Company produced 25 PD-1 aircraft and the Martin Company built 30 PM-1 variants based on the NAF design. Subsequently, Martin built 25 PM-2 variants and the Keystone Aircraft Corporation built 18 similar PK-1 aircraft, the latter being twin-rudder versions. Thus, the PN-12 gave birth to 98 offspring. These aircraft served in the Fleet until 1938.

The ‘1619 Project’ Gets Schooled

‘So wrong in so many ways” is how Gordon Wood, the Pulitzer Prize-winning historian of the American Revolution, characterized the New York Times ’s “1619 Project.” James McPherson, dean of Civil War historians and another Pulitzer winner, said the Times presented an “unbalanced, one-sided account” that “left most of the history out.” Even more surprising than the criticism from these generally liberal historians was where the interviews appeared: on the World Socialist Web Site, run by the Trotskyist Socialist Equality Party.

The “1619 Project” was launched in August with a 100-page spread in the Times’s Sunday magazine. It intends to “reframe the country’s history” by crossing out 1776 as America’s founding date and substituting 1619, the year 20 or so African slaves were brought to Jamestown, Va. The project has been celebrated up and down the liberal establishment, praised by Sen. Kamala Harris and Mayor Pete Buttigieg.

A September essay for the World Socialist Web Site called the project a “racialist falsification” of history. That didn’t get much attention, but in November the interviews with the historians went viral. “I wish my books would have this kind of reaction,” Mr. Wood says in an email. “It still strikes me as amazing why the NY Times would put its authority behind a project that has such weak scholarly support.” He adds that fellow historians have privately expressed their agreement. Mr. McPherson coolly describes the project’s “implicit position that there have never been any good white people, thereby ignoring white radicals and even liberals who have supported racial equality.”

The project’s creator, Nikole Hannah-Jones, is proud that it “decenters whiteness” and disdains its critics as “old, white male historians.” She tweeted of Mr. McPherson: “Who considers him preeminent? I don’t.” Her own qualifications are an undergraduate degree in history and African-American studies and a master’s in journalism. She says the project goes beyond Mr. McPherson’s expertise, the Civil War. “For the most part,” she writes in its lead essay, “black Americans fought back alone” against racism. No wonder she’d rather not talk about the Civil War.

To the Trotskyists, Ms. Hannah-Jones writes: “You all have truly revealed yourselves for the anti-black folks you really are.” She calls them “white men claiming to be socialists.” Perhaps they’re guilty of being white men, but they’re definitely socialists. Their faction, called the Workers League until 1995, was “one of the most strident and rigid Marxist groups in America” during the Cold War, says Harvey Klehr, a leading historian of American communism.


Martin delivered three Martin Ocean Transport Model-130s (M-130) to Pan Am in 1935. The aircraft became aviation icons of their day and were flown by Pan Am as the China Clipper, Philippine Clipper and Hawaii Clipper. [1] Unfortunately for Martin, Pan Am rejected the M-156 in preference to the now classic Boeing 314. The Martin's model numbers reflected the aircraft's wingspan.

Pan Am was seeking to expand its trans-Pacific air service between San Francisco and Hong Kong in 1937. This route had been pioneered by the Martin M-130 and Pan Am was in need of a larger aircraft. The San Francisco / Hawaii flight was 2,400 miles and took 18 – 20 hours. Pan Am would have configured the M-156 as a 26-berth sleeper. The trans-Pacific flights between Hawaii / Midway island / Wake Island / Guam / Manila / Hong Kong were less than half the California / Hawaii leg. With a lower fuel load requirement, the M-156 could carry additional passengers. The M-156 would have been converted to a 33- to 56-seat day trip configuration. Pan Am and Matson Liners advertised an "Air-Sea Cruise" where Matson Liners carried passengers from San Francisco to Honolulu. Passengers would then transfer to Pan Am Clippers for westward flights to China and the Orient. [2]

After Pan Am selected the Boeing 314, [3] Martin negotiated a deal with the Soviet Union for this aircraft and the M-156 was never put into regular trans-Pacific service. The M-156 was sold to the Soviets and operated by Aeroflot on the Soviet Union's far-east routes under the designation PS-30.

Like the M-130, the M-156/PS-30 was a four-engined, parasol wing design. While the M-156/PS-30 retained the same length as its predecessor, its wingspan was increased by more than 27 ft (8.2 m) with the addition of flaps for increased control. The M-156/PS-30 also differed from the M-130 by having a horizontal stabilizer mounted atop a pylon at the rear of the hull, with twin vertical stabilizers and twin rudders located atop the horizontal stabilizer. [4]

Along with the increase in wing size, fuel capacity was expanded from the M-130's 3,165 gal (11,981 l) to a total of 4,260 gal (16,126 l) in the M-156/PS-30. Power for each of the four engines increased from 850 hp (634 kW) to 1,000 hp (746 kW) utilizing the more powerful Wright Cyclone G2 radials. [5]

The Soviet government purchased the M-156 from Martin in 1937. The sale included a set of production plans, engineering specifications and manufacturing licenses as the Soviets intended to mass-produce this aircraft. The German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 negated these plans.

The single M-156/PS-30 was put into regular service in 1940 by Aeroflot and was utilized in the Soviet Far East along the Pacific coast. In this role, Aeroflot configured the aircraft to carry up to 70 passengers. It was flown by Aeroflot until 1944, at which time it was scrapped. [6]

Watch the video: Martin Garrix - Forbidden Voices Official Music Video (May 2022).


  1. Fauktilar

    There is no sense.

  2. Xanti

    Great topic

  3. Donris

    Does everyone send private messages today?

  4. Gakora

    Yes, the news went online and spreads with senior force.

  5. Vilkis

    There is something in this. Thanks for your help with this issue.

  6. Mezigal

    Okay, thank you very much for your help in this matter.

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