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Sushruta Timeline

Sushruta Timeline


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Ayurveda

Ayurveda ( / ˌ ɑː j ʊər ˈ v eɪ d ə , - ˈ v iː -/ ) [1] is an alternative medicine system with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent. [2] The theory and practice of Ayurveda is pseudoscientific. [3] [4] [5] The Indian Medical Association (IMA) characterises the practice of medicine by Ayurvedic practitioners as quackery. [6] Ayurveda is heavily practiced in India and Nepal, where around 80% of the population report using it. [7] [8] [9] [10]

Ayurveda therapies have varied and evolved over more than two millennia. [2] Therapies include medicines, special diets, meditation, yoga, massage, laxatives, enemas, and medical oils. [11] [12] Medicines are typically based on complex herbal compounds, minerals, and metal substances (perhaps under the influence of early Indian alchemy or rasa shastra). Ancient Ayurveda texts also taught surgical techniques, including rhinoplasty, kidney stone extractions, sutures, and the extraction of foreign objects. [13] [14]

The main classical Ayurveda texts begin with accounts of the transmission of medical knowledge from the gods to sages, and then to human physicians. [15] In Sushruta Samhita (Sushruta's Compendium), Sushruta wrote that Dhanvantari, Hindu god of Ayurveda, incarnated himself as a king of Varanasi and taught medicine to a group of physicians, including Sushruta. [16] [17] Ayurveda has been adapted for Western consumption, notably by Baba Hari Dass in the 1970s and Maharishi Ayurveda in the 1980s. Some scholars assert that Ayurveda originated in prehistoric times, [18] [19] and that some of the concepts of Ayurveda have existed from the time of the Indus Valley Civilization or even earlier. [20] Ayurveda developed significantly during the Vedic period and later some of the non-Vedic systems such as Buddhism and Jainism also developed medical concepts and practices that appear in the classical Ayurveda texts. [20]

In Ayurveda texts, Doṣa balance is emphasized, and suppressing natural urges is considered unhealthy and claimed to lead to illness. [21] Ayurveda treatises describe three elemental doṣas viz. vāta, pitta and kapha, and state that balance (Skt. sāmyatva) of the doṣas results in health, while imbalance (viṣamatva) results in disease. Ayurveda treatises divide medicine into eight canonical components. Ayurveda practitioners had developed various medicinal preparations and surgical procedures from at least the beginning of the common era. [22]

There is no good evidence that Ayurveda is effective for treating any disease. [23] Ayurvedic preparations have been found to contain lead, mercury, and arsenic, [24] substances known to be harmful to humans. In a 2008 study, close to 21% of U.S. and Indian-manufactured patent Ayurvedic medicines sold through the Internet were found to contain toxic levels of heavy metals, specifically lead, mercury, and arsenic. [25] The public health implications of such metallic contaminants in India are unknown. [25]


Reconstructive surgeries were being carried out in India as early as 800 B.C. A Hindu surgeon, Sushruta , reconstructed a nose using a piece of cheek. He also published the Sushruta Samhita which is a collection of medical texts on plastic surgery and the first of its kind in ancient history. The medical works of Sushruta was translated into Arabic in 750 B.C, and made their way into Europe via intermediaries.

The progress of plastic surgery was slow over the following thousand years the India techniques introduced in the West was gradually improved and adapted for new applications. Major development in medicine took place during the Greco Roman period. During this period, a Roman medical writer, Aulus Cornelius, wrote various texts, which layered out surgical methods for ears, lips and nose reconstruction. A detailed medical encyclopedia entitled, ‘Synagogue Medicae’ was compiled during the early Byzantine Period. This book contained various reconstructive techniques dedicated to repair facial defects.

Middle Ages & the Renaissance

During the renaissance, major scientific developments were made which resulted in development of safer surgical techniques. In the 15th Century, an Islamic text was written on maxillofacial surgery, eyelid surgery and a protocol for the treatment of gynecomastia which is considered as the foundation of modern day surgical breast reduction.

Plastic Surgery During the War

The most significant improvements in the field of plastic surgery occurred during the First World War when reconstructive surgery was a necessity for the casualties of war. Military physicians treated many facial and head injuries caused by modern weapons. Skin grafting techniques such as the ‘tubed pedicled graft’ were developed during this time to treat facial burns. It was during this time that physicians came to understand the influence an individual’s appearance could have on the level of success experienced in his or her life. This realization led surgeons to perform more complex procedures.

The 1940s & 50s

In 1946, the first issue of the journal of plastic and reconstructive surgery was published and served as a forum for dissemination of knowledge among plastic surgeons and their colleagues. During the Korean War, more complex reconstructive procedures such as wiring techniques to correct facial fractures and use of rotation flaps to correct deformities were performed.

Modern Plastic Surgery

Significant scientific developments took place during the 1960s silicone was a newly created substance and a staple of various cosmetic procedures. In 1962, Dr. Cronin created a new breast implant device made from silicone. Over the next years, these implants have been used in different parts of the body.

Interested in getting plastic surgery?

Every year, thousands of people undergo plastic surgery procedures. There is no reason why that can’t be you. If you interested, we can help you. Contact us today for more information about plastic surgery procedures.


History of Cosmetic Surgery

Cosmetic surgery seems like a modern medical procedure, yet it has longer and more complicated origins than most people imagine. People have always been concerned about outward appearance ever since the beginning of civilization. To give people a better look, doctors of the ancient times designed new ways of performing esthetic surgeries.

The first evidence of plastic surgery goes as far back as 2000 B.C. in India and Egypt. Ancient physicians practiced nose reconstruction, making use of reeds to keep nostrils open as they wait for the nose to heal. This early form of plastic surgery treatment was first mentioned in the Edwin Smith Papyrus, a transcription of an Ancient Egyptian medical text.

In 600 B.C., an Indian physician named Sushruta was considered as the first plastic surgeon. He published the Sushruta Samhita, a collection of medical texts about plastic and cataract surgery, as well as other illnesses. Sushruta performed the first skin graft.

With the culture that highly valued the beauty of the natural body, the Romans also performed cosmetic surgery. During the first century A.D., Roman physicians were performing rhinoplasty that became popular because of the barbaric custom of many kingdoms like cutting off upper lips and noses of enemy soldiers. Operations were made on former gladiators whose faces and bodies became severely damaged after a battle. Roman scholar Aulus Cornelius Celsus wrote De Medicina, a record of surgical techniques that outlined some of the procedures used in practicing breast reduction and reconstruction of noses, lips, and ears.

After the fall of Rome, the progress of plastic surgery appears to have been stagnant until the Renaissance. The spread of Christianity forbade any type of surgical changes to the body as mandated by Pope Innocent III.

During the 1500s, an Italian physician named Gaspare Tagliacozzi recognized the need to keep grafted skin supplied with blood to avoid infections. Before his time, skin grafting meant cutting skin from one area and then sewing it into another. Tagliacozzi developed a method of nasal reconstruction to correct saddle nose deformity using skin flaps of the upper arm. However, this process is extremely painful as the technology of anesthesia was still in its early stages of development at that time. Plus, his work was hindered by the influence of the church.

For centuries, the cosmetic surgery industry continued to struggle. While techniques of anesthesia haven’t been established, surgeries that involve healthy tissues are of great pain.

However, efforts were made to cosmetic and plastic surgery to become more precise and refined. In 1793, an operative procedure on a lip was performed using a flap from the neck by French surgeon François Chopart. In 1814, the first successful rhinoplasty in England was conducted by surgeon Joseph Carpue on a British military officer who lost his nose to the toxic effects of mercury treatments. Carpue made use of Indian surgical practices long ago. In 1818, a German surgeon named Carl Ferdinand von Graefe founded German rhinoplastic surgery and published his work entitled Rhinoplastik. Von Graefe modified Tagliacozzi’s Italian methods of skin grafting.

Meanwhile, in 1827, the first American plastic surgeon John Peter Mettauer performed the first cleft palate operation using instruments he designed himself.

One major impediment to cosmetic surgery was removed in the 1860s when English doctor Joseph Lister’s model of aseptic surgery was introduced in Germany, France, Italy, and Austria. When anesthesia was further refined by the 1880s, cosmetic surgery became a safer and less painful method of modifying body parts. Plus, the outbreak of wars changed the course of plastic surgery history forever.

During World War I, plastic cosmetic surgery burgeoned. Plastic surgery was pioneered by New Zealand-born surgeon Sir Harold Gillies. He developed several techniques involving skin graft and the pedicle, treating mostly soldiers who suffered from facial injuries during the World War I. An Armenian American oral surgeon Varaztad Kazanjian was considered as the founder of the modern practice of plastic surgery and pioneered various maxillofacial surgical techniques.

In the mid-1920s, the first formal training and fellowship for plastic surgery were established at Johns Hopkins. Meanwhile, the first division of plastic surgery at a public hospital was formed in the New York City Hospital.

Plastic surgery was further institutionalized by the medical community by 1931 when The American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons, which is today known as the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, was founded by Drs. Jacques Maliniac and Gustave Aufricht. By 1937, the association formed the American Board of Plastic Surgery to raise the standards in the specialty.

Within the past century, the field of plastic and cosmetic surgery has grown tremendously. Various technological improvements have been discovered and invented to improve the ease, precision, and speed of surgeries. The first medical journal for the practice was published in 1946, which increased communication about the new developments in the medical community.

This millennium, public interest in plastic surgery skyrocketed. Popular TV shows like Extreme Makeover, Dr. 90210, and Nip/Tuck gave a new and familiar mindset towards plastic surgery. The most common types of plastic surgeries are liposuction and breast augmentation, with women accounting for 91 percent of the patients.

Today, the industry of cosmetic surgery continues to expand and evolve as modern technology advances with time.


Cataract Surgery in the Ancient World

Before the Christian world emerged in the late 4th century AD, the pagan world had been practicing medicine for centuries, but they, also, routinely killed babies in and out of the womb and generally despised the weak and the sick. Over the next centuries, the Christian attitude toward the infirm and infanticide totally changed the mind of the Western world and many hospitals for the sick were built and techniques for cures were invented and implemented. This article, however, will deal with the heroic and prescient attempts by ancient pagan physicians with good clean hearts and minds to help those with diseases of the eye, namely cataracts.

Eye with cloudy film of a cataract

A medical cataract is the incremental growing of a film (cataract) over the lens of the eye causing vision to be impaired. Over time, a cataract or cataracts interfere with a person’s vision and activities. Nowadays, people get cataract surgery to have the film removed. It is a safe procedure.

The first doctor in history to attempt to remove the filmy cataract was an Indian physician in the 600-400’s BC named Sushruta.

All of what is known of Sushruta and his many surgeries is in Hindu in The Sushruta Samhita, collected by Nagarjuna in the latter part of the 4th century BC.

As a practicing surgeon, Sushruta was a strong advocate of dissecting bodies of the dead in order to gather crucial information for his surgeries. He, also, brought to his procedures an extensive knowledge from his study of dead animals.

For cataract surgery, Sushrata recommended using a curved needle called the Jabamukhi Salaka to loosen the lens and push the cataract out of the field of vision. The eye was then soaked with warm butter and bandaged. The good Indian doctor strongly recommended that cataract surgery only be performed when it was an absolute necessity.

Indian doctor taking out a cataract

The room in which the cataract surgery was performed should be totally cleaned and fumigated with certain herbs, Sushruta said. The patient was to fast before surgery. We find in the Samhita (see fragment below) that ophthalmic operations were done with great skill and caution.

Cataract operations in ancient Rome were complicated, also. The Romans knew about the zonules, the multiple radial “strings” that hold the lens in place. Their method called “couching” loosened those strings with sharp needles so the lens fell away from the pupil, dropped into the back of the eye and allowed light into the lens again.

Roman Couching Needles Cataract surgery “on the fly,” so to speak

Another form of couching was to push a sharp metal instrument into the eye and wiggle it around until the cataract was dislodged from the pupil. Another was to take a stick or other blunt instrument and deliver a blow to the outside of the eye, hoping to dislodge the lens from the strings of the zonules. If that worked, the pieces were sucked out with a sucking instrument. One must remember these operations were done without a modern anesthetic and often the patient was blinded or at least left with impaired vision.

Cornelius Celsus (25 BC-50 AD) 1528 edition of Celsus’ book On Medicine

The 1st century AD Roman author Celsus who wrote De Medicina (On Medicine) described the use of a specially pointed needle, called a specilla: “A needle is to be taken, pointed enough to penetrate, yet not too fine, and this is to be inserted straight through the two outer tunics (layers) of the eye….When the (correct) spot is reached, the needle is to be sloped….and should gently rotate there little by little.”

After cataract surgery, the patient was often given a prescription of vinegar lotion, breast milk or copper oxide to help the scar heal. These were given on eye stamps with the prescription and name of the doctor on them much like our post-surgery prescriptions on paper. (See Ancient Greek Oculist’s stamp and 1st-4th century AD Roman Eye Doctor’s stamp below).

Ancient Greek Oculist’s stamp 1st-4th century Roman Eye Doctor’s stamp

CLICK HERE for 3 minute PBS video on history of cataract surgery.

What MUST be said about the ancients has already been said by the wise ancient Hebrew King Solomon in c. 1000 BC:

“What has been will be again.
What has been done will be done again.
There is nothing new under the sun.” Ecclesiastes 1:9


Sushruta, Father of Surgery

Suśruta (सुश्रुत (sʊʃɾʊt̪), was an ancient Indian surgeon and is the author of the book Suśruta Saṃhitā, in which he describes over 300 surgical procedures, 120 surgical instruments and classifies human surgery in eight categories. He lived, taught and practiced his art on the banks of the Ganges in the area that corresponds to the present day city of Varanasi in North India.

Because of his seminal and numerous contributions to the science and art of surgery he is known by the title "Father of Surgery." Much of what is known about this inventive surgeon is contained in a series of volumes he authored, which are collectively known as the Sushruta Samhita.

Sushruta was educated and worked in Varanasi.

Contributions

There are numerous contributions made by Sushruta to the field of surgery. Surgical demonstration of techniques of making incisions, probing, extraction of foreign bodies, alkali and thermal cauterization, tooth extraction, excisions, trocars for draining abscess draining hydrocele and ascitic fluid. Described removal of the prostate gland, urethral stricture dilatation, vesiculolithotomy, hernia surgery, caesarian section, management of haemorrhoids, fistulae, laparotomy and management of intestinal obstruction, perforated intestines, accidental perforation of the abdomen with protrusion of omentum. Classified details of the six types of dislocations, twelve varieties of fractures and classification of the bones and their reaction to the injuries. Principles of fracture management, viz., traction, manipulation, appositions and stabilization including some measures of rehabilitation and fitting of prosthetics. Classification of eye diseases (76) with signs, symptoms, prognosis, medical/surgical interventions and cataract surgery. Description of method of stitching the intestines by using ant-heads as stitching material. First to deal with embryology and sequential development of the structures of the fetus. Dissection and study of anatomy of human body. Introduction of wine to dull the pain of surgical incisions. Enumeration of 1120 illnesses and recommended diagnosis by inspection, palpation and auscultation.

The earliest surviving excavated written material which contains the works of Sushruta is the Bower Manuscript�ted to the 4th century AD, almost a millennium after the original work.

The medical works of both Sushruta and Charaka were translated into Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate (750 AD). These Arabic works made their way into Europe via intermediaries. In Italy the Branca family of Sicily and Gasparo Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.


Transmission outside India

The text was translated to Arabic as Kitab Shah Shun al-Hindi' in Arabic, also known as Kitab i-Susurud, in Baghdad during the early 8th century at the instructions of a member of the Barmakid family of Baghdad. [135] [8] Yahya ibn Barmak facilitated a major effort at collecting and translating Sanskrit texts such as Vagbhata's Astangahrdaya Samhita, Ravigupta's Siddhasara and Sushruta Samhita. [136] The Arabic translation reached Europe by the end of the medieval period. [ citation needed ] There is no evidence that in Renaissance Italy, the Branca family of Sicily and Gasparo Tagliacozzi (Bologna) were familiar with the rhinoplastic techniques mentioned in the Sushruta Samhita. [137] [138]

The text was known to the Khmer king Yaśovarman I (fl. 889-900) of Cambodia. Suśruta was also known as a medical authority in Tibetan literature. [135]

In India, a major commentary on the text, known as Nibandha-samgraha, was written by Dalhana in ca. 1200 CE.


History of Cataract Surgery

A cataract is a pathologic condition in which the lens of the eye becomes opacified causing changes in vision that may include blurriness, color changes, halos around light, and at its worst blindness. There are many causes and risk factors for developing a cataract, however the most common cause is a senile cataract in which the clouding of the lens is caused by aging Ώ] . For this reason, it is not surprising that cataracts are a leading cause of blindness worldwide affecting over 20 million in 2010, with the incidence projected to increase ΐ] . Prior to the 1700s some people thought cataracts were caused by opaque liquid material flowing through the lens hence the etymology of cataract is from the Latin word “cataracta” which means waterfall - or perhaps because sometimes a dense cataract can resemble one to the imaginative viewer Α] .


When cataracts cause visual impairment, surgical intervention is currently the only method for treatment. Fortunately, because of advances in technology, cataracts can now be removed and replaced with an intraocular lens (IOL) with a low complication rate.

Previous Surgical Methods

Couching

One of the earliest surgical interventions for cataracts, dating as early as the 5th century BC, was a technique called couching, which comes from the french word “coucher” meaning “to put to bed.” In this method, a sharp needle is used to pierce the eye near the limbus until the provider can manually dislodge the cataract - typically into the vitreous chamber - and out of the visual axis.


However, the lack of aseptic technique and rough nature of the procedure resulted in poor outcomes Β] . Some common complications include secondary glaucoma, hyphema, endophthalmitis, and often results in blindness. Unfortunately, couching is a traditional procedure that is still used today in parts of the world like Northern Nigeria and West Africa due to a multifactorial combination of unfamiliarity of modern procedures, fear of surgery, and preference of relying on traditional methods Β] Γ] .

Extracapsular Cataract Extraction

While many used the couching technique, there are texts as early as 600 BC that document the use of a primitive extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) - meaning the lens is removed and the lens capsule is left in place - by an Indian surgeon named Sushruta. A translation of the original text in Sanskrit discloses the following operative technique: a sharp needle punctured the eye through the aqueous humor until reaching the capsule of the lens where the surgeon would make an incision. The patient was then instructed to valsalva with a closed nostril until lens material came out of the incision and the patient’s vision improved. Postoperatively, indigenous roots and leaves were applied in a bandage and the patient was instructed to lie flat and avoid strenuous activities including cough and sneezing Δ] .

For centuries despite some documentation of primitive ECCE, couching was the main procedure for cataracts until 1747 when French surgeon Jacques Daviel, often credited as the father of modern cataract extraction surgery, performed an ECCE. He would make a corneal incision > 10 mm with a corneal knife, then use a blunted needle to puncture the lens capsule, and extract the lens using a spatula and curette. Post operative care included dressing the eye with a cotton dressing soaked in wine and lying in a darkened room for a few days. Although this was a great advancement from couching, significant complications were prevalent such as posterior capsular opacification, retained cataracts, and infection Β] Ε] .

Intracapsular Cataract Extraction

While Daviel was credited as the first to perform ECCE, in 1753 a London surgeon by the name Samuel Sharp is the earliest documented to perform intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE), this involves the removal of the opacified lens and the surrounding capsule in one piece. There are different variations to this method but essentially all of them require lysing the zonular fibers that support the lens capsule and followed by subsequent removal of the lens-bag complex through a large limbal incision. Unfortunately, because the lens capsule acts as a barrier between the anterior and posterior chamber, its removal often causes vitreous prolapse and subsequent retinal detachments among other complications. Furthermore, removing the lens and capsule in one piece requires a large incision, resulting in longer healing times and higher infection rate Β] .

Intraocular Lenses

An important function of the natural lens is to refract light waves so that they are focused on the retina, providing a clear image. Patients without such lenses are considered aphakic and before the advent of intraocular lenses (IOLs) required often high-powered, bulky spectacles, which often led to poor visual quality. In fact, Sir Harold Ridley exclaimed that “extraction alone is but half the cure for cataract.” During World War II, Dr. Ridley observed that one of the Royal Airforce pilots had sustained shrapnel ocular trauma from plastic and despite having a foreign body, remained largely asymptomatic for years. This inspired a collaboration with the Plastics Division of Imperial Chemical Industries to develop the first IOL made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), mainly used in airplanes at that time. In 1949 Dr. Ridley was credited to perform the first IOL operation at St. Thomas’ Hospital in London. His work was met with disdain as this was a revolutionary idea of inserting a foreign object inside the eye. Further criticism stemmed from complications such as glaucoma, inflammation, inability to individualize the refractive strength of the IOL, and frequent dislocation of the IOL. Dr. Ridley admits that further work was necessary to address many of the complications, but his innovative work paved the way for modern advancements in IOL and cataract surgery Β] Ζ] .

In 1978, Kai-yi Zhou implanted the first foldable IOL made of silicone. Some of the benefits of the foldable IOL are easier implantation and a small incision, resulting in less induced astigmatism, faster healing and fewer infections Η] .

Modern Cataract Surgery

The conglomeration of foldable IOL, use of topical anesthetics in 1993 by Fischman, and the introduction of phacoemulsification in 1967 by Dr. Charles Kelman allowed for the modern extraction of cataracts to be effective and safer ⎖] . Phacoemulsification uses ultrasound to break up the cataract and then subsequently the cataract is aspirated from the eye. This development allowed surgeons to decrease the incision in the eye from 10mm to typically less than 3mm, which has the benefits of shorter recovery times, more stable surgery, and lower complication rate. In modern surgery, small incisions ranging from 1-3.0mm are made, the anterior lens capsule is opened in a usually curvilinear fashion (capsulorrhexis) and then lens is hydrodissected to loosen adherence to the capsule. Micro-instruments are used to help divide the lens into fragments and phacoemulsification is to break up and aspirate the cataract. An IOL, often foldable, is then inserted into the remaining lens capsule if possible Β] .

Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Cataract Surgery (FLACS) was approved by the U.S. Federal Drug Administration in 2010. The femtosecond laser has imaging software to image the cornea, capsule lens and anterior chamber. After registry, the laser can perform corneal incisions for entry into the eye and for astigmatism correction, capsulotomy, and lens softening or fragmentation. Surgeons can use this technology for corneal astigmatism correction or in cases where advanced-technology lenses, such as astigmatism correcting (toric) or multifocal or trifocal lenses are inserted.

ECCE has also been advanced in more recent years with the description of a newer technique, manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS, also SICS or SECCE). This more modern procedure is a low cost, smaller incision advancement of ECCE that is principally utilized in the developing world. It has the advantages compared to ECCE of a smaller, self-sealing, suture-less wound, and the advantages over phacoemulsification of lower cost and less need for technology.

Future Direction

Modern cataract surgery is extremely safe and efficacious, and we continue to push for advancements to improve outcomes and patient satisfaction. Integrated systems for the operating room to help position astigmatism-correcting lenses, Intraoperative aberrometry, heads-up, three dimensional visualization systems as well as many new technology IOLs that increase post-operative visual range and precision are recent developments that expand options and may improve outcomes for patients.

Conclusion

Although cataracts are one of the most common causes of vision loss and blindness across the world, advances in technology and innovations allowed the treatment of this pathology to be very safe and efficacious. Thanks to many of the innovators we have come a long way from the practice of couching. Unfortunately, many people do not have access to modern cataract surgery juxtaposed with an aging population, the incidence and prevalence of cataracts will continue to rise. Hopefully, with advances in the field, cataract surgery can become even safer and more accessible to all.


The History Of Obesity Timeline

Obesity is a fascinating and destructive thing. It’s fascinating in that it’s uniquely human or human caused. It doesn’t exist in nature because the slow or fat are killed (if they’re prey) or die of hunger (if they’re unfit predators).

Obesity is cascadingly destructive as this timeline will show. It’s a modern phenomenon with only a few pockets showing up during the Renaissance. The costs to health, environmental devastation, and money are staggering.

Origin of Obesity: Obesity is from the Latin obesitas, which means “stout, fat, or plump.” ?sus is the past participle of edere (to eat), with ob (over) added to it. The Oxford English Dictionary documents its first usage in 1611 by Randle Cotgrave.

33,000 B.C.: The first sculptural representations of the human body 20,000–35,000 years ago depict obese females.

450 B.C.: The Greeks were the first to recognize obesity as a medical disorder. Hippocrates wrote that “Corpulence is not only a disease itself, but the harbinger of others”.

600 B.C.: Many cultures throughout history have viewed obesity as the result of a character flaw. The obesus or fat character in Greek comedy was a glutton and figure of mockery. wikipedia – Obesity

550 B.C.: The Indian surgeon Sushruta (6th century BCE) related obesity to diabetes and heart disorders. wikipedia – Obesity

200 A.D.: During Christian times food was viewed as a gateway to the sins of sloth and lust. wikipedia – Obesity

1300 A.D. to 1700 A.D.: During the Renaissance some of the upper class began flaunting their large size, as can be seen in portraits of Henry the VIII and Alessandro del Borro. Rubens (1577–1640) regularly depicted full-bodied women in his pictures, from which derives the term Rubenesque. wikipedia – Obesity

1909 A.D.: Average American ate 4 pounds of cheese. By 2000 cheese consumption soared 8 fold to 32 pounds of cheese per year! Wikipedia.org – Obesity_in_the_United_States

1971 A.D.: Average woman ate 1542 calories per day. By 2004 the average woman consumed more than 1871 calories per day a 335 calorie per day jump. Most of this 21.7% calorie consumption increase were empty carbohydrates and sodas. wikipedia – Obesity

1995 A.D.: United States consumption of fast-food meals tripled and food energy intake from these meals quadrupled since 1977. wikipedia – Obesity

1997 A.D.: U.S. obesity rate has climbed to 19.4% Wikipedia.org – Obesity_in_the_United_States

2002 A.D.: Obesity rates have doubled since 1980, reaching the current rate of 33% of the adult population Wikipedia on Epidemiology of Obesity

2004 A.D.: U.S. obesity rate reaching critical levels at 24.5% Wikipedia.org – Obesity_in_the_United_States

2005 A.D.: WHO estimates that at least 400 million adults (9.8%) are obese Wikipedia on Epidemiology of Obesity Women obese at higher rates than men. Wikipedia on Epidemiology of Obesity

2007 A.D.: U.S. obesity rates continue their march higher to 26.6% Wikipedia.org – Obesity_in_the_United_States – Obesity rates are as high as 50% among African American women. Wikipedia on Epidemiology of Obesity

2008 A.D.: – U.S obesity looks unstoppable ascending to 33.8% Wikipedia.org – Obesity_in_the_United_States – The World Health Organization claimed that 1.5 billion adults, 20 and older, were overweight and of these over 200 million men and nearly 300 million women were obese. Wikipedia on Epidemiology of Obesity

May 2009 A.D.:The case for reducing consumption of all types of sugar…especially fructose and High Fructose Corn Syrup: Research links sugar consumption to the rising obesity trend. Dr. Robert Lustig, esteemed medical doctor, pediatric hormone disorders specialist, and childhood obesity expert speaks out about sugar. On May 26, 2009 he lecturs on the Evils of Sugar. July 2010 this lengthy 90 minute lecture posted to YouTube has over 3,100,000 views. Dr. Robert Lustig crusades against sugar SFGate, 2013.

Dr. Gary Taubes [author of Why We Get Fat and What to Do About It] talks about Sugar Toxicity and Dr Robert Lustig’s position: New York Times.

2010 A.D.: U.S. obesity rates reaching catastrophic levels at 35.7% Wikipedia.org – Obesity_in_the_United_States

Financial Cost of Obesity – According to a 2010 study, direct obesity related medical expenses in America are $160 billion per year. The estimated indirect costs? $450 billion. Infographic

– Obesity costs the average man an extra $2,646 per year and the average woman an extra $4,879 on average Infographic

– Obese people are paid close to $3.50 less than their healthier counterparts. Infographic

– Obese women are paid 11% less than their healthy counterparts Infographic

2012 A.D.: Of all countries, the United States has the highest rate of obesity. Wikipedia.org – Obesity_in_the_United_States

U.S.:74.1% of people are overweight and 30% of those are obese. Infographic

Is obesity worse in U.S. women than men?: In the U.S., 27.5% of males are obese, while 33.4% of females are obese. Infographic

Obesity Leads to Heart Attacks

70% of diagnosed heart disease cases are linked directly to obesity, according to the American Heart Association: Source

Obesity Leads to Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Nationwide, more than half of adults with the disease are obese, and 30 percent or more are overweight. NYTimes.com- Diabetes and the obesity paradox

2030 A.D.: (projected numbers)

Almost half of Americans (41%) are expected to be obese by 2030 Infographic

86% of Americans are expected to be overweight by 2030 businesspundit.com the economic costs of obesity/

Are we missing anything? Do any of these entries NOT belong? Feel free to make some suggestions below! And hit the Facebook Like button if coming to this page made it worth coming to HistoWiki.com today. Bookmark us now and follow the Timeline’s up coming changes by hitting the “Subscribe to” button below in the comment section!

About this Timeline’s Curators:
Clint Evans of Hip Chick Fitness, a women’s weight loss community, and his business partner Houston area Fitness expert E. Calvin Barber II, have studied weight trends and health for over 15 years. They’ve seen the dire costs of obesity first hand. The devastation weight gain wreaks on families and lives is too much to bear. They’re focus is to help women lose weight using healthy natural foods in an eating plan they can sustain long-term. This way the fat melts and it stays away.

Are we missing anything? Do any of these entries NOT belong? Feel free to make some suggestions below! And hit the Facebook Like button if coming to this page made it worth coming to HistoWiki.com today. Bookmark us now and follow the Timeline’s up coming changes by hitting the “Subscribe to” button below in the comment section!

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Sushruta---Father of surgery

Sushruta was a surgeon and teacher of Ayurveda who flourished in the Indian city of Kashi by the 6th century BC. Sushruta served as a surgeon in Kashi, where he practiced medicine and identified the treatment and origin of several diseases. He is well recognized for his innovative method of rhinoplasty, extra capsular lens extraction in cataract, anal and dental surgeries. However, little is known regarding his vivid description of diabetes (madhumeha), angina (hritshoola) and obesity (medoroga).

He was a disciple of Dhanwantari, who is recognized as the Lord deity of Ayurveda (science of life) the Indian system of medicine. He was identified as the son of the Vedic sage Visvamitra.

The medical treatise Sushruta Samhita—compiled in Vedic Sanskrit—is attributed to him. The Sushruta Samhita refers to the eight branches of Ayurvedic medicine. The text is divided into six sections and 184 chapters. Sushruta details about 650 drugs of animal, plant, and mineral origin. In addition, it describes more than 300 kinds of operations that call for 42 different surgical processes and 121 different types of instruments. Other chapters in Sushruta make clear the high value put on the well-being of children, and on that of expectant mothers. Sushruta's coverage of toxicology (the study of poisons) is more extensive than that in Charaka, and goes into great detail regarding symptoms, first-aid measures, and long-term treatment, as well as classification of poisons and methods of poisoning. His samhita discusses in minute detail how to perform prosthetic surgery to replace limbs, cosmetic surgery on different parts of the body, cesarean operations, setting of compound fractures, and even brain surgery.

Sushruta details about 125 surgical instruments used by him, mostly made of stones, wood and other such natural materials. Use of shalaka, meaning foreign body (rods or probe), is also mentioned by Sushruta. Some classifications found in the Sushruta Samhita are not even traced by modern medical science. He is the first surgeon in medical history who systematically and elaborately dealt with the anatomical structure of the eye.

Sushruta described diabetes (madhumeha) as a disease characterized by passage of large amount of urine, sweet in taste, hence the name “madhumeha” — honey like urine. He goes on to say that diabetes primarily affects obese people who are sedentary and emphasized the role of physical activity in amelioration of diabetes.

Though the discovery of circulation is attributed to William Harvey it is interesting to note that Sushruta had the knowledge of a structure like heart and its role in circulation of “vital fluids” through the ‘channels’. His vivid account of angina (“hritshoola “, meaning heart pain) is marvelous, though he did not use the exact term as angina. It embodies all the essential components of present day definition, i.e. site, nature, aggravating and relieving factors and referral. According to him angina is chest pain which is precordial, temporary, exertional, emotional, burning like and relieved by rest. He also linked this kind of pain to obesity (medoroga). Besides these, he has also described the symptoms of “vatarakta” which are similar to that of hypertension.

Sushruta describes the day-to-day life of the physician in ancient India, who made the rounds of patient's residences and also maintained a consulting room in his own home, complete with a storeroom of drugs and equipment. According to him, although doctors could command a good living, they might also treat learned brahmins, priests and the poor for free. Sushruta describes the ideal qualities of a nurse, and suggests that doctors may have been required to have licenses.

Sushruta extols the benefits of clean living, pure thinking, good habits and regular exercise, and special diets and drug preparations. A plant called soma that is described in the early texts but has never been clearly identified was recommended as a treatment for rejuvenating body and mind. Sushruta explains the need of all living creatures to sleep and to dream as a function of two principles of the mind that give glimpses of previous existences or warn of future ill health. When both principles are weakened, results in coma.

Sushruta is also the father of Plastic Surgery and Cosmetic Surgery since his technique of forehead flap rhinoplasty that he used to reconstruct noses that were amputated, is practiced almost unchanged in technique to this day.

Sushruta had become very famous and his work was translated first into Arabic. Subsequently it reached Europe through Latin and English. Long before the so-called modern medicine and its surgical wing acquired its professional dimensions, Sushruta had traversed a long way ahead of the rest of the world of medical practice and training.

Because of his seminal and numerous contributions to the science and art of surgery he is also known by the title "Father of Surgery”.

Sushruta’s name is synonymous with India’s surgical inheritance, as correctly summarized by the ‘Legacy of Sushruta” (by Dr. M.S. Valiathan) and in proclaiming the greatness of India’s great heritage of its culture.

2 comments:

Towards the end of 1833 a Committee was appointed by the government of William Bentinck in Bengal to report on the state of medical education and also to suggest whether teaching of indigenous system (ayurveda) should be discontinued. The Committee consisted of Dr John Grant as President and J C C Sutherland, C E Trevelyan, Thomas Spens, Ram Comul Sen and M J Bramley as members. The Committee criticized the medical education imparted at the Native Medical Institute (NMI) for the inappropriate nature of its training and the examination system as well as for the absence of courses on practical anatomy. Ayurveda had no knowledge of surgery, virology, opthalmology, general medicine,gyanecology, microbiology and obsterics. The Committee submitted a report on October 20, 1834 and it recommended that the state found a medical college 'for the education of the natives'. The various branches of medical science cultivated in Europe should be taught in this college. The intending candidates should possess a reading and writing knowledge of the English language, similar knowledge of Bengali and Hindustani and a proficiency in Arithmetic. This recommendation, soon followed by Macaulay's minute and Bentinck's resolution, sealed the fate of the school for native doctors and medical classes at the two leading oriental institutions of Calcutta. The Native Medical Institution (NMI) was abolished and the medical classes at the Sanskrit College and at the Madrasa were discontinued by the government order of 28 January 1835. This action of the government infuriated students and the faculty of NMI and Sanskrit College. From that time onwards Ayurvedic teachers carried on a battle against Western medicine and produced spurious Sanskrit manuscripts to cover all the topics in modern medicine and claimed all these topics were known to ancient Indians, especially Sushruta and Charaka, long before the British doctors came to know about them. The English surgeon Carpue's technique in rhinoplasty was copied and attributed it to Sushruta. Althgough Carpue had never visited india , they made a false statemenet that he was in India for 20 years to study rhinoplasty. The proposed new college, known as the Calcutta Medical College (CMC), which was established by an order of 20 February 1835 ushered in a new era in the history of medical education in India. But the abolition of medical classes in the Sanskrit College and NMI angered Ayurvedic teachers and students. It was at that time Sanskrit manuscripts in the names of Charaka and Sushruta were produced and propagated to claim surgery and anatomy were known to Indians long before Europeans came to know about them. How could Sushruta perform difficult surgeries without anaesthesia?


Watch the video: SUSHRUTA - Raul Garcia Maya (June 2022).


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