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Amagi sunk at Kure

Amagi sunk at Kure


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Amagi sunk at Kure

The Unryu class carrier Amagi was sunk at Kure by a US air attack on 24 July 1945. This post-war picture was taken by the Americans on 8 October 1945, and shows the bow of the Amagi.


Amagi sunk at Kure - History

22,400 Tons (standard)
22,800 Tons (full load)
227.4m x 27m x 7.8m
6 x Twin 127mm AA guns
13 x Triple 25mm AA guns
3 x 25mm AA guns
6 x 28 12cm rockets

Armor
Belt: 48-140mm
Deck: 25-56mm

Aircraft Capability: 65
(Never fielded)
23 x A6M Zero
21 x D3A2 Val
21 x B6N Jill

Wartime History
On August 10, 1944 proceeds to Oita and becomes the flagship of Vice Admiral Ozawa Jisaburo of the Mobile Fleet until October 1944. Between September 1944 until December 1944 underwent training excercises operating between Gunchu, Kure and Hashirajima for but never left the Inland Sea.

On January 15, 1945 the 601 Kokutai (601 Air Group) was is reassigned from Matsuyama Airfield to Iwakuni Airfield with Amagi transporting the group's aircraft and personnel to Iwakuni.

On January 20, 1945 at Iwakuni then departs on February 1, 1945 arriving at Kure Harbor nine days later and enters dry dock until February 24, 1945. On March 15, 1945 assigned to the 2nd Fleet and was destined to never again depart Kure Harbor.

On March 19, 1945 attacked by U.S. Navy (USN) Task Force 58 (TF-58) carrier aircraft anchored northwest of Haruna in Kure Harbor. During the attack, a bomb hit the edge of the flight deck causing minor damage but jammed the elevator in the downward position. Amagi anti-aircraft gunners claim twelve aircraft shot down. Afterwards, repaired and refit for the remainder of the month.

On March 28, 1945 deactivated to become a static anti-aircraft defensive platform, camouflaged and moved to a semi-permanent mooring in Kure Harbor with the starboard side 50 meters off the southwest end of Mitsukojima (Mitsugojima). On April 20, 1945 reassigned for special duty as a a reserve ship of the 4th Kure Naval District manned by a skeleton crew.

Sinking History
On July 27, 1945 U.S. Navy (USN) Task Force 38 (TF-38) carrier aircraft attack Kure. The first wave did not cause any damage to Amagi, but near misses bracket both sides of the bow. Another bomb landed very close along the port side blasting a hole in the hull fifteen feet below the waterline which caused the forward bomb magazine to immediately flood cause a list to the port side.

Around 10:00am hit by two bombs only minutes apart. The first is a 500-pound bomb that detonates in the starboard passageway beside No.2 stack, severely damaging the stack and blew a small hole in the starboard hull below the flight deck.

Next, a 2,000 pound bomb hit almost exactly on the centerline dead amidships between the elevators and penetrated 25' before exploding against or just above the upper hangar deck. The blast blew apart the adjacent hangar walls and flight deck and caused 200' of the flight deck to bulge upward with the sides of the hangar bulkheads amidships blown out and a 50 meter section was hurled outward and overboard. The blast shock dropped the forward elevator and caused a large longitudinal crack in the forward flight deck that caused the deck to droop downward. The bomb blew a 25' hole in the upper hangar deck and fragments of it passed through the lower hangar destroying the watertight integrity of decks and bulkheads in the lower amidships over a wide area.

The Commanding Officer and others miraculously survived the explosion and there was little fire. Afterwards, a 5" rocket hit the intact part of the flight deck to starboard between the forward elevator and the base of the island. At the same time near-misses were landing close alongside to port, detonating below the waterline causing fragments to riddle the port side. Boiler Room no. 4 and no. 6 on the port side began to flood, and the carrier began to settle into the water.

At noon, the Captain ordered the crew to abandon ship. With some reluctance, the engineering watch evacuates, finally moving to do when another near-miss to port abreast the after elevator grazed an anti-aircraft gun and opened the port after engine room to the sea.

At 3:30pm the last watch evacuates as another twenty carrier planes attack with the port after engine room flooding. At the end of the day, the carrier is still afloat with only a slight list to port and the flight deck is completely demolished. Because the carrier was abandoned and still afloat, the the Kure Navy Yard Superintendent censures the crew for abandoning prematurely.

On July 28, 1945 for the second day, U.S. Navy (USN) Task Force 38 (TF-38) carrier aircraft attack Kure. Amagi suffered only one, possibly two additional direct hits, many near-misses to port opened plating and accelerated flooding. One bomb observed as a direct hit on the flight deck near the port deck edge opposite the No.2 stack. Amagi begins to list more notably to port, and as she heels water enters the gashes torn in the hull above the waterline by the fragments of exploding bombs alongside. Though a small fire-fighting crew from Kure Navy Yard is aboard, they report that progressive flooding has spread over the third deck.

During the night, the carrier listing through the night and by morning of July 29, the bow was nosing under. At 1000 hours she lurched sharply to port, and capsized, toppling over to an angle of 70 degrees. The bulk of the ruined flight deck and the two elevators fell overboard when she did. She grounded with bow submerged and flight deck canted slanting into the water, starboard screws exposed. Although abandoned, one officer and 4 Petty Officers and men were still assigned to the ship as caretakers.

Shipwreck
On October 13, 1945, Amagi was handed over to the U.S. Navy (USN). On November 28, 1945 inspected by U.S. Navy technicians. On February 16, 1946 the ship was authorized to be raised and scrapped. The ship was righted on November 13, 1946 righted and re-floated by December 5, 1946 and scrapping began. By December 12, 1947 completely scrapped.

References
Note, "Amagi" was also the name of Amagi (Amagi class battlecruiser) partially built 1920-1923 scrapped 1924
Combined Fleet - IJN Amagi: Tabular Record of Movement

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This Japanese Aircraft Carrier Got Sunk Before It Could Even Start Its First Mission

Amagi was an Unryu-class aircraft carrier built for the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Named after Mount Amagi, and completed late in the war, she never embarked her complement of aircraft and spent the war in Japanese waters.

Some 16 Unryu-class aircraft carriers were planned as part of a huge naval construction programme begun in 1942 and designed to replace the losses suffered at the Battle of Midway. The Unryu series proved to be the last purpose-built carriers constructed by the Japanese, and then only three were completed before the end of the war.

The Amagi had an overall length of around 225 metres, a beam of 22 metres, and a draft of 8.73 metres, displacing some 20,450 metric tons. The crew consisted of 1,595 officers and men. The Unry?-class carriers used the same turbines and boilers as used in the heavy cruiser Suzuya. These consisted of four geared steam turbine sets with a total of 152,000 shaft horsepower (113,000 kW) driving four shafts using steam provided by eight Kampon Type B water-tube boilers. The ship had a designed speed of 34 knots (63 km/h 39 mph). When it was commissioned in 1944, the carrier was intended to carry a mixed compliment of 48 aircraft. However, by then the shortage of carrier-qualified aircrew was such that planes were ordered to operate from shore bases and Amagi never embarked her air group.

The ship’s primary armament consisted of a dozen 40-caliber 12.7 cm Type 89 anti-aircraft (AA) guns in twin mounts on sponsons on the ship’s sides. Amagi was initially equipped with 16 triple 25 mm Type 96 and three single AA gun mounts, most on sponsons along the sides of the hull. By the end of the war, the ship mounted 22 triple and 23 single mounts. These guns were supplemented by six 12 cm (4.7 in) 28-round AA rocket launchers.

The ship capsized in July 1945 after being hit multiple times during airstrikes by American carrier aircraft during a massive air raid while moored at Kure Naval Base. Amagi was refloated in 1946 and scrapped later that year.


Contents

Definitions
Main guns The number and type of the main battery guns
Armour Thickness of the armoured belt
Displacement Ship displacement at full combat load
Propulsion Number of shafts, type of propulsion system, and top speed generated
Service The dates work began and finished on the ship and its ultimate fate
Laid down The date the keel began to be assembled
Commissioned The date the ship was commissioned
Fate The eventual fate of the ship (e.g., sunk, scrapped)

The four Kongō-class ships were the first battlecruisers ordered by the Imperial Japanese Navy. The four ships were authorised in 1910 as part of the Emergency Naval Expansion Bill, in response to the construction of HMS Invincible by the British Royal Navy. [11] Designed by British naval architect George Thurston, the first ship of the class (Kongō) was constructed in Britain by Vickers, with the remaining three built in Japan. They were armed with eight 14 in (356 mm) main guns, could sail at 27 knots (50 km/h 31 mph), and were considered to "outclass all other [contemporary] ships". [5] Kongō was completed in August 1913, Hiei in August 1914, and Haruna and Kirishima in April 1915. The vessels saw minor patrol duty during the First World War.

In the aftermath of the Washington Naval Treaty, all four ships underwent extensive modernisation in the 1920s and 1930s, which reconfigured them as fast battleships. [12] The modernisations strengthened their armour, equipped them with seaplanes, overhauled their engine plant, and reconfigured their armament. [13] With a top speed of 30 kn (35 mph) and efficient engine plants, all four were active in the Second World War Hiei and Kirishima sailed with the carrier strikeforce to attack Pearl Harbor, while Kongō and Haruna sailed with the Southern Force to invade Malaya and Singapore. Hiei and Kirishima were lost during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, [14] Kongō was torpedoed on 21 November 1944 in the Formosa Strait, [9] and Haruna was sunk during the Bombing of Kure on 28 July 1945. [10]

Specifications and service data
Ship Main guns Armour Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Commissioned Fate
Kongō 8 × 14 in (356 mm) [5] 8 in (203 mm) [15] 27,500 long tons (27,941 t) [5] 4 screws, steam turbines, 27.5 kn (50.9 km/h 31.6 mph) (later 30.5 kn (56.5 km/h 35.1 mph)) [16] 17 January 1911 16 August 1913 Torpedoed in the Formosa Strait, 21 November 1944 [9]
Hiei 4 November 1911 4 August 1914 Scuttled following Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, 13 November 1942 [17]
Kirishima 17 March 1912 19 April 1915 Sank following Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, 15 November 1942 [18]
Haruna 16 March 1912 19 April 1915 Sunk by air attack, Kure Naval Base, 28 July 1945 [18]

As part of the Eight-Eight fleet, four Amagi-class battlecruisers were planned. The order for these ships and four battleships of the Kii class put an enormous strain on the Japanese government, which by that time was spending a full third of its budget on the navy. [19] Akagi was the first ship to be laid down construction began on 6 December 1920 at the naval yard in Kure. Amagi followed ten days later at the Yokosuka naval yard. Atago ' s keel was laid in Kobe at the Kawasaki shipyard on 22 November 1921, while Takao, the fourth and final ship of the class, was laid down at the Mitsubishi shipyard in Nagasaki on 19 December 1921. [6]

The terms of the February 1922 Washington Naval Treaty forced the class' cancellation, but the two closest to completion (Amagi and Akagi) were saved from the scrappers by a provision that allowed two capital ships to be converted to aircraft carriers. However, the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake caused significant stress damage to the hull of Amagi. The structure was too heavily damaged to be usable, and conversion work was abandoned. [20] [N 1] Amagi was struck from the navy list and sold for scrapping, which began on 14 April 1924. The other two ships, Atago and Takao, were officially cancelled two years later (31 July 1924) and were broken up for scrap in their slipways. Akagi went on as an aircraft carrier to fight in the Second World War, where it was sunk after air attack during the Battle of Midway. [6]

Specifications and service data
Ship Main guns Armour Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Commissioned Fate
Amagi 10 × 16 in (406 mm) [6] 10 in (254 mm) [6] 46,000 long tons (46,738 t) [6] 4 screws, steam turbines, 30 kn (56 km/h 35 mph) [6] 16 December 1920 November 1923 (projected) Reordered as aircraft carrier damaged in earthquake cancelled and scrapped [6]
Akagi 6 December 1920 December 1923 Reordered and completed as aircraft carrier [6]
Atago 22 November 1921 December 1924 Cancelled and scrapped [6]
Takao 19 December 1921 December 1924 Cancelled and scrapped [6]

Design B-64 was originally intended to be part of Japan's Night Battle Force, a force that would attack an enemy fleet's outer defence ring of cruisers and destroyers under the cover of darkness. After penetrating the ring, Japanese cruisers and destroyers would launch torpedo attacks on the enemy's battleships. The remainder of the enemy would be finished off by the main fleet on the following day. The B-64s were intended to support the lighter cruisers and destroyers in these nighttime strikes. [21] This strategy was altered when the Japanese learned the specifications of the United States' Alaska-class large cruisers. The design was enlarged and redesignated B-65 their purpose would now be to screen the main battle fleet against the threat posed by the fast and heavily armed Alaskas. [22] [23] With war looming in 1940, the Japanese focused on more useful and versatile ship types such as aircraft carriers and cruisers the Japanese defeat at the 1942 Battle of Midway meant that the ships were postponed indefinitely, and with more important strategic considerations to worry about, the ships were never built. [24] [25]


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Contents

In July 1945 the IJN's remaining large warships were concentrated near the major naval base of Kure. The ships were immobilized by fuel shortages and were being used only as stationary anti-aircraft batteries. [2] Admiral John S. McCain, Sr., the commander of the Fast Carrier Task Force, strongly opposed attacking Kure as he and his staff believed that the ships only posed a minor threat. [3]

In his memoirs Admiral Halsey gave four reasons for why he attacked Kure despite McCain's objections. First, he believed that the attack would boost US morale and retaliate for the Attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941. Second, it would ensure that the Japanese could not disrupt the planned Soviet invasion of Hokkaido. Third, it would prevent Japan from using its fleet as a bargaining point to secure better peace terms. Finally, he had been ordered to conduct the attack by his superior officer, Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz. [3]

Despite operating as a task group of the US Third Fleet, the British Pacific Fleet was excluded from the attack on Kure because the Americans did not want Britain to claim a part in destroying the Japanese fleet. The BPF was instead used to attack airfields and the port of Osaka. [2] [3]

Kure had been subjected to several major attacks prior to July 1945. On 19 March 1945, 321 US Navy aircraft attacked Japanese warships in and around the city. This attack was unsuccessful, with no Japanese ships being sunk, though an escort carrier and a light cruiser were badly damaged. [4] On 5 May B-29 Superfortress bombers of the United States Army Air Forces successfully bombed the Hiro Naval Aircraft Factory. B-29s laid naval mines in the approaches to the port on 30 March and 5 May, and 40 percent of the city was destroyed in a major air raid conducted by Superfortresses on 1 July. [5]

Participating in the attacks were Task Force 38 for the Americans and Task Force 37 for the British. Task Force 37 included the carriers HMS Formidable   (67) , Indefatigable   (R10) , and Victorious   (R38) . [6]


Welcome to our Online Collections Database!

The Keyword Search button allows you to perform a general search across multiple fields for any catalog records online. Keyword searches use OR as the default connector between words (e.g. a search for Hanley Ranch will return records associated with Hanley OR Ranch). If you want to find records where both keywords are found, type in AND between the two words. To search for a specific phrase, be sure to put the phrase within quotes (e.g. "Rocky Pine Ranch"). You can also use the asterisk (*) as a wildcard (e.g. a search for histor* would come up with records containing history, histories, historical, etc.). Searches are not case sensitive.

Advanced Search

The Advanced Search button can help you be more specific with your search. You can search for a word or phrase within a particular search category or use multiple categories to further narrow down your search results. For example, searching White in the People field will bring up any records associated with a member of the White family, without having to sift through black & white photographs. You can also search People and Creator records through Advanced Search. Phrase searching with quotes and use of wildcards (*) are available in Advanced Search.

Random Images

The Random Images button is a great way to just browse the collection. Each Random Images page displays a random assortment of images from the records online. If something piques your interest, click the thumbnail to view a larger version of the image.

Catalog Searches (Archives / Photos / Libraries / Objects)

The catalog buttons can also help narrow down your search, by only searching with a selected catalog. If you only want to search for Photos, click the Photos button and type in your keyword(s) or phrase. You can also browse records within that catalog without performing a search. Phrase searching, wildcards (*) as well as AND/OR statements are available when performing catalog searches.


Sinking Ship

With his ship badly stricken, Captain Taijiro Aoki ordered the carrier's magazines to be flooded. Though the forward magazine flooded on command, the aft did not due to damage sustained in the attack. Plagued by pump problems, damage control parties were not able to bring the fires under control. Akagi's plight worsened at 10:40 AM when its rudder jammed during evasive maneuvers.

With fires breaking through the flight deck, Nagumo transferred his flag to the cruiser Nagara. At 1:50 PM, Akagi came to a stop as it engines failed. Ordering the crew to evacuate, Aoki stayed aboard with the damage control teams in an effort to save the ship. These efforts continued through the night but to no avail. In the early morning hours of June 5, Aoki was forcibly evacuated and Japanese destroyers fired torpedoes to sink the burning hulk. At 5:20 AM, Akagi slipped bow first beneath the waves. The carrier was one four lost by the Japanese during the battle.


IJN Ashitaki

During 1940, Ashitaki was then sortied to the North Sea, to help defend German Oil fields. As a sign of goodwill, Russia allowed her to pass through the polar route in 1940. However, Japan secretly undermined this by sailing the battleships IJN Kongo and IJN Mutsu, and the escort carriers IJN Shin'yō, and IJN Taiyō.

From this point onward, she served predominately with the German battleships, in the Japanese Baltic Division, shelling the British port Scapa Flow and merchants, and protecting German Oiling platforms.

During an engagement in November of 1942, she was apart of the action that sunk the HMS Jellicoe and HMS Courageous. While HMS Courageous managed to strike and damage her, the damage was not extensive. However, due to the loss of Shin'yō, and the retreat of Taiyō, she was left without air cover leading to heavy damage from mainland RAF bombers.    Because Germany lacked any docks large enough to hold and repair her, she made temporary repairs at Wilhelmshaven.

To get back to Kure, Germany agreed to vector troops from the African Campaign to capture the Suez Canal. Named Operation WüsteBlitz, German troops successfully captured the Suez Canal in February of 1941.

Under the cover of darkness, she made her way through the Mediterranean, stopping at Casablanca, Barcelona, and Malta. Ashitaki encountered the Greek dreadnought Salamis off the coast of Kriti and quickly dispatched the obsolete dreadnought. However, during the engagement, Ashitaki's surface scanning radar became disabled from a shell fired by the Salamis. Additionally, this alerted the allies to the Ashitaki's probable route of exiting the theater.  

The HMS King George V, and HMS Monarch, which were the 2 largest allied battleships in the theater, were deployed in pursuit of the battlecruiser.. In early 1943, she would come under fire from the HMS Princess Amelia. During the third or fourth salvo from the Princess, a round penetrated the magazine of the Ashitaki, blowing the ship to pieces.

Ashitaki sank in 11 minutes, with a loss of 1050men.  The lack of Luftwaffe support was heavily criticized by the Japanese, and combined with the losses sustained at the Midway Campaign, eventually led to them completely withdrawing from the Atlantic theater. However, the lack of her surface scanning radar only compounded the lack of escort.

In 1960, her hull was rediscovered, largely covered in silt, the center aft gun section lies on top of the bow, while the forward superstructure is upside down, and partially collapsed under the stern section.


Battle

The Third Fleet's attack against Kure began on 24 July. [6] US carrier aircraft flew 1,747 sorties on this day against Japanese targets. [7] The attacks were successful, and resulted in the sinking of aircraft carrier Amagi, and the cruiser Ōyodo, which at this time was acting as the Combined Fleet's flagship. The battleships Hyūga, Ise, and Haruna, the heavy cruisers Tone and Aoba, and the outdated armored training cruisers Iwate and Izumo were all heavily damaged and settled in shallow water. [8] The shallow anchorage precluded the use of torpedos. The US aircraft attempted to reduce their losses from the large number of anti-aircraft guns in the area by the use of variable time-fused bombs. [2] [5]

The British Pacific Fleet's attacks against Osaka and targets in the Inland Sea damaged escort carrier Kaiyo and sank the escort ships No. 4 and No. 30 for the loss of four aircraft. [2]

US strikes against Kure resumed on 28 July and resulted in the further damaging of the battleships Ise and Haruna, and the heavy cruiser Aoba. [2] The aircraft carrier Katsuragi which had largely escaped attack in the earlier raid, and the unserviceable light aircraft carrier Ryūhō were attacked, with Katsuragi suffering heavy damage. [7] These air strikes were among the largest conducted by the US Navy during the war, and were the most destructive of shipping. [7]

The USAAF also launched an attack of the Japanese ships at Kure on 28 July. This raid was made up of 79 B-24 Liberators based on Okinawa. Four bomb hits were made upon the beached cruiser Aoba. The bomb strikes further damaged the vessel, and caused her stern to be broken off. The raid suffered the loss of two B-24s shot down and 14 others suffered damage. [9]

Allied losses included 102 aircrew and 133 planes lost in combat or accidents during the attacks. These losses were higher than those suffered by the Third Fleet in most of its operations, and were the result of the heavy anti-aircraft defences around Kure. [1]


Watch the video: Japan Naval Base at Kure Harbor, Honshu in Ruins (June 2022).


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